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3  Power Plant Choices          3a  Pilot Plant Power          3b  Carbon Capture Power          3c  NuScale Nuclear Reactor          3d  ThorCon Nuclear Reactor          3e  General Atomics Nuclear Reactor         

4  Hydrogen and Steam Generators          5  Biomass Preparation          6  Plasma Torch Biomass Gasifier          7  Biosynfuel Refinery          8  Biosynfuel Product Processes        9  Reversing Climate Change

POWER PLANT CHOICES

BACK

NOW  3a  Pilot Plant - Build 1/5 Scale Plant Consisting Of Technologies 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 To Optimize How They Mesh In Practice
(For grid powered pilot plant, use the existing coal plant grid connection substation in reverse to supply grid level electricity to the energy park pilot plant)

NOW  3b  Build A Non-nuclear Carbon Captured Fossil Fuel Powered Clean Energy Park  

NEAR TERM   3c  NuScale Underground Nuclear Reactor    550°F Conventional Water Cooled    
http://www.nuscalepower.com/

FUTURE
   3d  ThorCon Underground Nuclear Reactor    1,300°F Molten Salt Cooled    http://thorconpower.com/

FUTURE
  3e  SiGA Silicon Carbide Core Underground Nuclear Reactor    1,560°F Hydrogen Gas Cooled    http://www.ga.com/advanced-reactors 
 


https://analysis.nuclearenergyinsider.com/ 

NuScale is a U.S. Light Water Reactor (LWR) (conventional reactor), 50 megaWatt Extra Safe "Bridge" Reactor.  
ThorCon, U.S. company, 250 megaWatt modules to be fabricated in Korean automated shipyard, assembled and run in Indonesia, is based on the 1965 8 megaWatt Oak Ridge Molten Salt that ran uneventfully for about 5 years.

A lot of tech-savvy millennials have seen through the wishful thinking surrounding wind and solar energy.

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Integral Carbon Capture

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Canada:  http://www.cnl.ca/en/home/news-and-publications/news-releases/2017/cnl-releases-summary-report-on-small-modular-react.aspx 

        Items and issues extracted from the above Canadian report:

SMALL MODULAR REACTORS UNDER DEVELOPMENT - These categories are distinguished primarily by their fuel and/or coolant properties:

1. Pressurized Water-cooled Reactors (PWR)                    (Modern SMR bridge versions of today's large water-cooled reactors.)
2.
High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR)            
3. Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFR)
4.
Lead-cooled Fast Reactors (LFR) 
5. Gas-cooled Fast Reactors (GFR)
6.
Molten Salt Reactors (MSR)
7. Fusion Reactors

SMRs COULD BE APPLIED TO APPLICATIONS BEYOND ELECTRICITY:

           Application                             Rank
1. District heating                              - #2
2. Industrial process heat                   - #5
3. Hydrogen production                      - #1
4.
Synfuel production
5. Heavy oil recovery
6. Petrochemical refining
7. Desalination                                 - #3
8. Oxygen production
9.
Energy storage                             - #4 Coupling with energy storage
10. Marine propulsion
11. Isotope production
12. Recycling of spent fuel to reduce current spent fuel volume and liability
13. Community infrastructure and services, such as greenhouses, wide-band internet for medical and educational use, and aquaculture

 

OTHER ISSUES INCLUDE:

1. Operation beyond electricity generation
2. Simple design and operation
3. Quick deployment
4. Well understood and quantified risks
5. Reactor must be transportable
6. Schedules must be accurate and predictable
7.
Off-grid reactors must have the capability for remote monitoring
8.
Designs must be standardized
9. Designs must be scalable
10. Must have minimal staffing requirements
11.
Early consideration and incorporation of safeguards issues, especially for novel designs
12.
Option to recycle current spent fuel inventories for use as a fuel source

And, with the nuclear industry struggling to compete against low-cost natural gas generation, the birthplace of nuclear reactors, Idaho National Laboratories, is stepping up a search for ways to lower existing reactor operating costs, research on "accident tolerant" reactor fuels for existing water cooled reactors, i.e., developing safer fuel rod cladding than the zirconium that has been traditionally used, designing more efficient control rooms and using technology to reduce reactor safety inspection time and costs.

Small Modular Reactor (SMR) consortium:    http://smrstart.org/     About SMRs:   http://smrstart.org/news-and-resources/   SMR Economics 

 

According to the American think tank Third Way, there are presently five SMRs in development in the US:
Global list of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs): http://www.uxc.com/smr/uxc_SMRList.aspx 

• NuScale Power, Corvallis, Oregon   http://www.nuscalepower.com/ 
• Radix Power and Energy Corp, Setauket, New York   http://www.uxc.com/smr/   
• Holtec, Jupiter, Florida   http://www.holtecinternational.com/productsandservices/smr/ 
• Westinghouse, Fulton, Missouri   http://www.westinghousenuclear.com/New-Plants/Small-Modular-Reactor 
• General Atomics, San Diego, California   http://www.ga.com/energy-multiplier-module
 




http://terrestrialenergy.com/ 

http://starcorenuclear.ca/#!/welcome/ 


http://www.dunedinenergy.ca/ 

http://www.generalfusion.com/ 

 

NuScale is expected to file the first full design license application for a small modular reactor (SMR) later this year. The Oregon based developer was an early mover in the design licensing process, starting its NRC design certification pre-application project back in 2008. NuScale plans to submit its license application in late 2016 under a DoE funding agreement which will provide the firm with $217 million towards the design certification application and other commercialization engineering, analysis and testing.

NuScale is the largest single recipient of DoE funding for SMR licensing and development and the government’s support mechanism requires the group to execute testing programs in support of design development and NRC review requirements. - - - Nuclear Energy Insider, Jan 12, 2016

Large energy, no matter if it is coal, natural gas, oil, or nuclear energy, must have government licensing.  Example:  Boiler License Example - Permit Extract - Los Angeles .pdf

How nuclear energy can be used to replace fossil fuel energies

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https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/a374p8/nuclear-energy-programs-rarely-lead-to-nuclear-weapons 
Yes and No.  Missing from above are the significant WWII nuclear countries Germany, U.K., U.S., Russia.
Water cooled solid uranium power reactors are used to make excellent weapons-grade plutonium.

 

 

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Nuclear Energy's Radiation Realities

There are many very old nuclear scientists and engineers. They got that way because they KNEW what they were doing.  Most are non-smokers.
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_hormesis      If you don't know what you are doing - DON'T DO IT!

People who work around radioactivity always wear pocket radiation detectors called Dosimeters ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dosimeter )  along with photographic film dosimeters to monitor their accumulated exposure to ionizing radiation. 

(Personal note.) My Cell Biologist wife wore dosimeters for all of her 34 year career in medical research - she used radioactive tritium tracer molecules (uptake of tritiated thymidine, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymidine ) as a way to trace the movement of medicines to and through living cells.)

(Above) ThorCon's Underground Reactor Equipment Layout.

Running reactors make a lot of neutron radiation. Locating running nuclear reactors deep in the ground away from people makes more sense than the shielded above ground reactors often built by the nuclear electricity industry. 
The one academic research reactor the author has personally seen was under water, deep underground, in the middle of a University Campus in the middle of a Midwest town.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Nuclear_Reactor  

NuScale has a similar below-grade enclosure that includes water.
Water is one of the best radiation barriers - about 3 feet will stop anything.

 

(Above) Notice how interfacing layers of water, steel (a poor radiation shield), and some lead are used to provide excellent radiation containment in a small space.
You will have to use your imagination to come up with a reason why anyone would do this.

 

 

The Three Common Forms Of Radiation

 


Stay as far away as possible and behind the best shielding possible from anything that is even slightly radioactive.

The Containment Wall Used In Current Nuclear Reactor Facilities.

 

Interestingly, low levels of radiation help to keep immune systems "tuned up", thereby protecting people from cancer and other mutations. 
(Mother nature uses Cosmic and Solar radiation.)

 

Safe-to-Unsafe Radiation Energy Spectrum  (In milliSeverts)

 

Hormesis Symbol

 

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_hormesis

 

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