Page 2 - The Skyscrubber Energy Park
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The Skyscrubber Energy Park
(Wood Powered Allam Cycle Negative CO2 Power Plant)
Soon, new technologies will be available to begin massive NEGATIVE CO2 unlocking from trees to SUBTRACT Climate Change from the AIR
This new type of power plant, located over a CO2 disposal region, would burn local trees originally planted to remove Climate Change CO2 from the air, store their CO2 underground, sell the electricity.
Equipment Pages. What
the Equipment Does:
4 BECCS Wood Pellet Handling and Preparation - It begins by making carbon monoxide (CO) out of wood pellets (4)
5 Plasma Torch Wood Pellet Gasifier For Wood-to-Syngas - by heating wood pellets to several thousand degrees in a electric plasma torch heated gasifier (5),
6 Wood Pellet Syngas Cleanup - after which non-gas solids such as plant nutrients and plant minerals for plant fertilizer feedstock along with other impurities are removed (6).
7 Wood Syngas to Methane Upgrade - The CO is then catalytically upgraded to methane, or "Synthetic Natural Gas" (CH4) (7).
8 Allam BECCS Power Plant - Chemical Input: The synthetic methane is then used to power an Allam cycle engine (8) to make electricity. (Pipeline fossil natural gas is used as a standby.) A commercial size 250 megaWatt(e) natural gas system would require about 3,000 ton/day of oxidant mixture to the combustor at 99.5% purity. Chemical Output: The Allam Cycle engine captures the combustion of methane's CO2 exhaust as liquid CO2, which then comes out of the engine as a high pressure liquid in its own pipe rather than going up a smokestack. Other exhaust stream pipes are nitrogen, argon, and water.
9 Class VI CO2 Disposal Well - The liquid CO2 is then pumped thousands of feet underground into a suitable porous strata by injecting it into a nearby carbon capture and sequestration (storage) well (9).
The 300 megaWatt Toshiba-built Allam Cycle power plant cannot burn Plasma Torch Gasified Wood Syngas (which is carbon monoxide - CO). It is designed to burn pipeline-grade fossil natural gas (Methane - CH4) or pipeline-grade synthetic fossil natural gas manufactured from coal or lignite (the so-called "clean coal" technologies). The wood-to-methane adaptor facility shown above is intended to use densified biomass pellet feedstock and convert it to pipeline-grade synthetic natural gas suitable for burning in a Allam Cycle electricity power plant. Real fossil natural gas is methane, not gasified wood. To upgrade gasified wood to synthetic methane, additional hydrogen needs to be added and the resulting gas subjected to a catalytic methanation reaction. The Allam Cycle engine is an OxyFuel engine that needs large amounts of oxygen that it happens to be able to produce cheaply. Anytime you produce large amounts of oxygen from either air or water, you also produce large amounts of hydrogen. Once the wood syngas is hydrogenated, the methanation catalytic reaction is inexpensive.
The Germans ( https://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/10/20181008-kit.html ) have already built a wood syngas pilot plant for duplicating fossil methane natural gas for both automobile fuel and their massive natural gas heating pipeline network.
Visualization of a catalytic methanisation reaction over metal: This reaction could be used to produce carbon-neutral methanol liquid from tree CO (carbon monoxide syngas) for direct combustion in today's existing automobiles.
U.S. and Global CO2 Sequestration Issues
See CarbFix: CO2 Locked in the ground forever. Watch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zDZmIDbDO0 If water is added to the liquid CO2 as it is pumped into the ground, the CO2 will turn into limestone after a few years. This locks the CO2 underground forever.
Maps Showing various UNDERGROUND CARBON CAPTURE STORAGE STRATA LOCATIONS
See: "Geospatial analysis of near-term potential for carbon-negative bioenergy in the United States" by Ejeong Baik, et al. https://www.pnas.org/content/115/13/3290 (pdf)
Locations without carbon disposal will have to rely on renewables for their electricity.
"The United States has the technological potential to offset roughly only a decade’s worth of its current CO2 emissions through biological sequestration (i.e., planting trees, etc.,) but a few hundred years’ worth of emissions through carbon dioxide capture and sequestration." - from Congressional Budget Office "The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States, 2007" - Summary, page 2.
Storing CO2 underground can have
geological consequences and is only done legally under the supervision of
government geological permitting agencies.
Example: Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership: https://www.mrcsp.org/
(One of dozens of Global CCS Institute
reports.) Lessons and Perceptions: Adopting a Commercial Approach to CCS
Liability: 14th August 2019, Organization: Global CCS Institute, CCS
Liability, CCS Projects, Liability.
The world may need
more than 5,000 Allam clean energy electricity plants to head off the worst
of Climate Change. Like cars, airplanes, and ships, clean energy
electricity plants would be modular in design similar to today's electricity
power plants. Multiple electricity plants could be located at a single site.
Such modularity is an economic advantage in several ways. The cost, quality,
and reliability of mass-produced machines is hard to beat.
are almost unlimited opportunities for completely new greenfield electricity
power plants now that prime underground strata for CCS CO2 sequestration
locations have been identified enabling cheap straight-down CO2 disposal via
disposal wells located on site property. Since potable water is one of the
Allam Cycle's exhaust products, Allam power plants could be located
virtually anywhere there is a CO2 disposal strata and sufficient biomass.
The national electricity grid is accessible nearly everywhere. This means
there is no need for a costly national high pressure CO2 disposal pipeline
grid that may take 20 years and billions of dollars to complete due to
opposition by environmentalists.
Storing CO2 underground improperly could create an unsafe site and is only to be done under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies.
Many countries don't have abundant natural gas, there are a few countries that don't have either coal or lignite, but very few that don't have trees.
Technology Readiness Levels for new thermal technologies.
The non-nuclear Allam Cycle engine looks to be at about 4.5 now.
(How long before the Allam Engine has mass market availability to begin significant BECCS Climate Change stopping?)
firewood-to-methane adaptor has to be engineered and
Wood sources and densified wood pellet factories need to be established.
A global implementation and support program needs to be in place.
Establishing a subsystem module supply chain.
Establishing a mass production wood-burning Allam BECCS power plant assembly factory.
ELECTRICITY CARBON TAXES and CARBON CAPTURE and SEQUESTRATION INCENTIVES
Information about the government's different Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Acts (Courtesy of Climate Change Working Group):
First, here's a
link to the bill itself: https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/763
Second, for anyone without the time or interest to read the entire bill, a link to a "road map" of the bill's contents, so the most relevant sections can be found with some ease: https://community.citizensclimatelobby.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Section-by-Section-Analysis-Energy-Innovation-Act-2019.pdf
Third, here's a link to Citizen's Climate Lobby's website about the bill, which also allows a reader to see who has already endorsed the bill and what the press is saying about it. It includes an endorsement tool: https://energyinnovationact.org/
Finally, for anyone wanting to compare this bill to other carbon pricing bills, an assessment that compares this bill (sponsored by Rep. Ted Deutch of Florida and therefore called the Deutch bill in the analysis) to others: https://energypolicy.columbia.edu/research/commentary/how-bipartisan-energy-innovation-and-carbon-dividend-act-compares-other-carbon-tax-proposals
All these carbon tax fees
raise a very serious question:
Q. How much per ton of CO2 is going to be refunded by the government to the operators of the above clean energy power plants to establish and operate a carbon dioxide disposal well on their own property?
A. Deutch bill: This section amends the Tax Code (Title 26) by adding the following subsections: Subtitle L - "Carbon Dividends and Carbon Fee", Sec. 9906 - Carbon Capture and Sequestration:
"Provides a refund of Carbon Fee paid when qualified carbon dioxide is captured and sequestered in a safe and permanent manner. Requires establishment of sound criteria for safe and permanent sequestration. Only CO2 from covered fuels, and only rebate for amount likely to remain sequestered."
- - - In the United States there are now 2 big carbon capture incentives: A recently expanded federal tax credit for captured CO2 and California’s new law requiring 100% of its electricity come from carbon-free sources by 2045.
In the U.S., carbon capture has led to the formation of extraordinary alliances. In 2018, a tax credit known as 45Q—so named for the relevant provision in the law—was revised to provide higher incentives for CCS with support from congressional lawmakers of both parties, big oil and gas, industry, and environmentalists. Over time, it will ramp up to $50 per metric ton of carbon stored geologically and $35 per metric ton of carbon stored through enhanced oil recovery, provided projects commence construction by the end of 2023. - Brad Page, Bloomberg Environment, Posted May 13, 2019, 6:00 AM
The LCFS and CCS Protocol: An Overview for Policymakers and Project Developers - California - pdf. If building the above Clean Energy Power Plant interests you, you need this document.
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