New Fuels
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Advanced Nuclear and Advanced Combustion Fuels that are
Better, more Powerful than Fossil Fuels

Part 1: Advanced Combustion Fuels
Evolution of the Hydrogen-to-Carbon Ratio in Fossil Fuels
How Fire Works
Pulling CO2 From the Air to Make the New Carbon-neutral Combustion Fuels
The New Carbon-neutral Combustion Fuels
FreeValve Engines

Part 2: Advanced Nuclear Fuels                                                                                         
How Nuclear Fission Works
The New Nuclear Fuels
     1. Molten Salt Blends of Uranium and Thorium
     2. Smooth Ceramic Spheres (Pebbles) of Graphite, Uranium, and Thorium

The Advanced Nuclear Reactors
     1. High Temperature 1,300F Molten Salt Cooled Reactors (MSR)
     2. Very High Temperature 1,830F Gas-cooled
Pebble Bed Reactors (VHTR)
     3. Mini and Micro Reactors For Schools, Factories, Hospitals
Part 3: Doing It
New Equipment to Make and Use New Fuels


(Above) What needs to be eliminated to stop Climate Change.

Evolution of the Hydrogen-to-Carbon Ratio in Fossil Fuels

(Above) Evolution of combustion fuels. 

This is it!  How much bad stuff (CO2) the different fossil fuels have.  Just look at the average hydrogen-to-carbon ratios in the black boxes. Wood, or biofuel, is crazy carbon-rich, with 5 times the carbons per hydrogen of coal. Natural gas, on the other hand, is carbon-poor with 4 hydrogens for every carbon.

But, the good news is that the carbons in wood came from modern air so are considered "carbon-neutral".  The carbon in fossil fuels hasn't been in our air since the age of dinosaurs, 150 million years ago.  This "Fossilized" carbon is alien to our modern air - it's as if it came from another planet. Fossilized carbon is throwing Mother Nature out of balance. Burning modern carbons - like the trees in forest fires, etc. - is part of Mother Nature's thing.

The great thing is that the environment won't be further harmed if we use nuclear energy to synthesize wood and other plants into liquid fuels we can burn to power mankind's world.

Coal is at the end of it's line in the first world where most is being used.  Much cheaper advanced nuclear sees it's future in coal's markets.

Oil, 78% as carbon-dirty as coal, (see above) is the combustion fuel that needs to be replaced with carbon-neutral biofuels.

Natural gas - Combined cycle gas power plants make 1/4 the CO2 of coal plants for the same electricity. Good enough until nuclear.

Man's other major sources of heat

Wood, straw, cattle dung, etc., are very carbon-dirty biofuels but, being carbon-neutral, are generally considered innocuous to Climate Change.

Hydrogen is not a fossil fuel, has no carbon, can be obtained by splitting water, so it is considered by some THE combustion fuel of the future.

Nuclear energy can be 2,000 times cheaper than either coal or gas, so eventually will replace most electricity and industrial heat applications.

Windmills and solar produce electricity, not heat, are too unreliable.  

Bottom line: Under certain pyrolytic conditions, woody biomass can become an 83% mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. [19.303]

(Above) This shows what happens when don't use nuclear heat to convert wood's carbon-neutral carbon into either fuel or sequestration.

(Below) Getting an idea of the role hydrogen plays in decarbonizing energy.



How Fire Works

There is a table of heat energies for chemical bonds between common chemicals at: 

Look again at the evolution of the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio mix diagram above. 


Pulling CO2 From the Air to Make the New Carbon-neutral Combustion Fuels

Video - Introduction to the Department of Energy's Billion-ton Bioenergy Project: 

Download your own pdf copy: 

Here is where is all comes together - using nuclear energy to process biomass into carbon-neutral captured carbon as feedstock for making carbon-neutral combustion fuels for automobiles, trucks and tractors, airplanes, and heating gas.

Key concept: If advanced nuclear energy is used to process America's waste biomass, we can harvest sufficient non-food biomass to make enough carbon-neutral combustion fuels to replace all our oil and natural gas. We won't have to change most of our energy distribution network.

From a technology standpoint, nuclear energy replaced coal in 1955.  Anti-nuclear environmentalists have kept us from switching to coal.

The Carbon-neutral concept is illustrated above by the circular path taken by Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. No NEW CO2 is added to the air.
Carbon (and sometimes oxygen) are needed to make combustion fuels. They hold on to hydrogen,  the energy atom.

Nuclear powered machines to suck CO2 out of the air are being designed and prototypes are being built.


The New Carbon-neutral Combustion Fuels

Introduction video

 Introducing clean replacements for Natural Gas, Gasoline, Diesel, and Jet Fuel.

Dimethyl Ether - a more powerful carbon-neutral replacement for diesel.   Lots of energy-packed hydrogens.


BioDME (Dimethyl Ether) as a carbon-neutral combustion fuel

A potentially major use of dimethyl ether is as substitute for propane in LPG used as fuel in household and industry.[11]

It is also a promising fuel in diesel engines,[12] petrol engines (30% DME / 70% LPG), and gas turbines. For diesel engines, an advantage is the high cetane number of 55, compared to that of diesel fuel from petroleum, which is 4053.[13] Only moderate modifications are needed to convert a diesel engine to burn dimethyl ether. The simplicity of this short carbon chain compound leads during combustion to very low emissions of particulate matter, NOx, and CO.

For these reasons as well as being sulfur-free, dimethyl ether meets even the most stringent emission regulations in Europe (EURO5), U.S. (U.S. 2010), and Japan (2009 Japan).[14] Mobil uses dimethyl ether in their methanol to gasoline process.[citation needed]

Dimethyl ether is being developed as a synthetic second generation biofuel (BioDME), which can be manufactured from lignocellulosic biomass.[15] Currently the EU is considering BioDME in its potential biofuel mix in 2030;[16] the Volvo Group is the coordinator for the European Community Seventh Framework Programme project BioDME[17][18] where Chemrec's BioDME pilot plant based on black liquor gasification is nearing completion in Pite, Sweden.[19]

In 2009 a team of university students from Denmark won the Urban Concept/Internal Combustion class at the European Shell Eco Marathon, an unofficial World Championship for mileage, with a vehicle running on 100% dimethyl ether. The vehicle drove 589 km/liter, (1,384 miles/gallon), fuel equivalent to gasoline with a 50 cc 2-stroke Diesel engine.
As well as winning, they beat the old standing record of 306 km/liter, set by the same team in 2007.[20]



Renewable Methane Heating Gas and Methanol (Gasoline Substitute):
Fire fuel
molecules that can be CO2-neutral and cheap to synthesize.
(Below) The CO2-neutral "Meth" molecules we can make from CO2 (from air) + Hydrogen (from water) and burn in today's cars instead of Gasoline or Ethanol.
Natural Gas IS Methane, so while it would be CO2-neutral, its combustion characteristics would remain the same as natural gas.
A similar propane-like molecule, dimethyl ether, makes a good substitute for Diesel (it has a higher Cetane index).

         (Gas) CO2-neutral Natural Gas Replacement              (Liquid) CO2-neutral Gasoline Substitute - commonly known as "Wood Alcohol".

                         Flex-Fuel cars (Gasoline and/or Ethanol E85) could also include Methanol M85.        
Methanol is cheap. "If you want economy, use methanol.  If you want range, use gasoline.  If you want neither, use ethanol."
        METHANOL - Proponents of Methanol Economy win 1 Million Dollar Prize .pdf                        Methanol Institute: 

Like ethanol, methanol is a member of the alcohol family.  Your author would be less than honest if he did not point out that, like gasoline, methanol is toxic.   DON'T DRINK IT.

"Methanol has the ability to liberate humankind from its dependence on fossil fuels for transportation and hydrocarbon products by allowing these to be produced by a technical hydrogenative recycling of CO2, supplementing and in many aspects eliminating limitations of natures photosynthetic cycle." -- Olah, George A,  Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy (pp. 181-182). Wiley. Kindle Edition.

It is not inconceivable that bioethanol (C2H6O) - at 70%, slightly more powerful than methanol at 60% - might, with the abundant heat of nuclear, be efficiently synthesized in the future.      


Beginning The Decarbonized Biomethanol Economy Now
Add conventional methanol fuel capabilities to all the world's gasoline vehicles. 
This could reduce gasoline vehicle CO2 emissions by almost 2/3 immediately (394 to 168 gm/mile). 
Later, down to zero CO2 emissions using carbon-neutral CO2 methanol tomorrow.
This energy strategy enables the world to continue to benefit from most of its oil and natural gas infrastructure investment but

This web site is suggesting recycling the CO2 that is already in the air as the biofeedstock for making
gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and heating gas.

Biofeedstock carbon-neutral methanol-based combustion fuel chemistry are the foundations of this site's message.

"Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy".
by George A. Olah, Nobel Prize winner in chemistry.  ISBN 3-527-31275-7. 
Written for the public, you do not need to be a chemist to understand his book and its message.  His book is the foundation concept for this web site. 

    Much more
can be learned from reading his book than this web site.  An excellent introduction to synthesizing all fuels from methanol made from CO2 and Hydrogen.


Inexpensive lower-CO2 fuels can be made today from "stranded" natural gas - caused by drilling for oil.  ("Stranded" means there is no pipe line to carry the gas to market.) Instead of wasting stranded gas by flaring it off, small truck size converters at the well head can turn it into liquid methanol fuel we can burn in our cars. 
Per mile, methanol would sell for less than gasoline and make less CO
2 - (see also the green table below).  

WHY CAN'T WE BUY METHANOL FUELS NOW?  We have a "DOUBLE Flex Fuel" law - only gasoline and ethanol - for cars in the United States.  HOWEVER, "Flex Fuel" cars in China and Brazil are "TRIPLE Flex Fuel" - also capable of using methanol.  Once our Flex Fuel law is extended to include methanol here in the United States (fuel system materials and computer programming changes - which actually add to the quality and performance potential of the engine - would add about $50 to the cost of building such a car), the stage is set for stopping
Climate Change because methanol fuels can ALSO be made from carbon-neutral recycled carbon dioxide (CO2) retrieved from the air naturally by vegetation or chemically by machines called air scrubbers.
Instead of going to the cost of synthesizing diesel from methanol, Dr. Olah suggests dehydrating methanol to make dimethyl ether (DME), 6880 kcal/kg, which has cetane ratings of 55 to 60 compared with diesel's 40 to 55.  DME has a boiling point of -25C (-13F) and is handled like propane.  DME is very clean burning - much like a catalytic converter equipped gasoline automobile.


practical beginning for backing out of Climate Change is already in Congress in the form of both a House and Senate bill:  The Open Fuel Standard Act of 2013 
Actual text of the proposed House bill:  Open Fuel Standards Act of 2013 - BILLS-113hr2493ih.pdf   A second proposed bill is in the Senate:
Fuel Choice for American Prosperity and Security Act (FCAPS)
Please visit these "Open Fuel Standard" Web Sites to learn more about the issues involved: 

See also:   It's about how stranded gas can be captured and turned into methanol fuel for automobiles now. 
See also:  Methanol Powered Houses  instead of solar cell powered houses.

Legalizing Methanol as a vehicle fuel.
"The most forceful measure that could be taken to open the fuel market would be to pass the Open Fuel Standard bill.  This act, introduced as HR 2493 by a bipartisan group led by representatives Tom Cole, R-Il., and Eliot Engel, D-N.Y., contains provisions that would require either methanol flex fuel, natural gas, biodiesel or electric capability in 30 percent of all new cars sold in the United States by 2016, ramping up to 50 percent by 2017 (the bill is silent on how natural gas liquids are to be regarded, but this could be remedied in committee)."
( Above from:  Methanol Oil Gas Reporter 12.13.pdf )  

The most important thing that perpetuates oil's monopoly is the gasoline-only automobile engine.

Real automobile fuel price competition >     

If you want economy, buy methanol.    If you want range, buy gasoline.    If you want neither, buy ethanol.


FreeValve Engines



The author's thinking here is that FreeValve engines might be able to squeeze a lot of squeaky-clean performance out of dimethyl ether's sky-high cetane rating. With this optimized engine for natural aspiration, from five liters, we get 600 horsepower at 8000 rpm. A beautiful setup for the car.


The New Nuclear Fuels

For reference, the standard light water cooled uranium rod bundle:


Standard Light Water Cooled Reactor (LWR) uranium fuel rod assembly. The uranium pellets are enclosed in a Zirconium rod sheath, used because it does not absorb the neutrons used to make the uranium pellets fission, also makes for hydrogen explosions when they overheat in the presence of hot steam - like Fukushima.

The new nuclear fuels.  These fuels were first identified during the Manhattan project but, for the most part, only low-level programs were funded at the time to explore their potential

     1. Molten Salt Blends of Uranium and Thorium

                  Denatured Molten Salt.pdf  A report by Dr. David LeBlanc on some of the various molten salt recipes Oak Ridge Laboratories tried out during the 5-year run of their molten salt reactor. Dr. LeBlanc now holds the patent for the Integral Molten Salt Reactor


     2. Smooth Ceramic Spheres (Pebbles) of Graphite, Uranium, and Thorium




How Nuclear Fission Works

How Nuclear Fission Works

Nuclear Energy 101:


Nuclear Energy 201:


Nuclear Energy 301:

The Advanced Nuclear Reactors

For reference, the standard 550F boiling light water reactor:

(Above) Standard 550F light water cooled nuclear reactor of the type used at Fukushima. 

Notice the water that comes into direct contact with the fuel rods passes as steam through the radiation barrier wall into the green turbine.  If one of the thousands of zirconium fuel rod sheaths develops a leak, the water comes into direct contact with the ceramic uranium pellets and can pick up and carry radioactive uranium particles beyond the radiation barrier wall.  Over time, this usually happens, eventually creating a slightly radioactive turbine, turbine room, water condenser, and the not remote possibility of additional leaks carrying the radioactive uranium particles into the cooling water pond outside.

Light water reactors being built today have a (primary) heat exchanger inside the reactor building to keep this from happening. (See the molten salt reactor below.)

550F light water reactors have a limited future. 550F nuclear reactors are not hot enough to directly power a nuclear-hydrogen-biomass energy economy. Coal can produce large fires as hot as 1,800F. Nuclear-hydrogen-biomass processes need heat as hot as this to convert biomass into the synthetic carbon-neutral fuels.

The new nuclear reactors:

     1. High Temperature 1,300F Molten Salt Cooled Reactors (MSR)

Primarily for making electricity.

     2. Very High Temperature 1,830
F Gas-cooled
Pebble Bed Reactors (VHTR)

Primarily for making hydrogen and carbon-neutral combustion fuels.

3. Mini and Micro Reactors For Schools, Factories, Hospitals
Primarily for Facility Cogeneration - Both Electricity and Heat.

Exchangeable G4 modules are brought by a special truck and lowered and retrieved into and out of the underground silos.



Earlier products envisioned by the Gen4 staff when the company called itself "Hyperion".


New Equipment to Make and Use New Fuels


How the technologies of Electricity from Nuclear & Fire from Biofuels will be interconnected 
About the individual technologies:  1>  2>  3> 4>  5>  6>  7>  8>  9>  10>  11>  12>  13>  14>  15>  16>  17>


Footnotes & Links