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1  Unneeded Old Coal Power Plant          2  New Electricity Generator Building       
3  Power Plant Choices          3a  Pilot Plant Power          3b  Carbon Capture Power          3c  NuScale Nuclear Reactor          3d  ThorCon Nuclear Reactor          3e  General Atomics Nuclear Reactor         

4  Hydrogen and Steam Generators          5  Biomass Preparation          6  Plasma Torch Biomass Gasifier          7  Biosynfuel Refinery          8  Biosynfuel Product Processes        9  Reversing Climate Change

Introductory Articles:
Using Nuclear Energy to Replace Fossil Fuels with Biosynfuels

The world runs on heat engines, not electricity.
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Introductory Articles

Who came up with these ideas? The Energy Park idea draws its fundamental concepts from two different, but complementary, source documents:
1.,
Dr. Charles Forsberg's "Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System" and
2.,
Dr. George A. Olah's "Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy".

The Energy Park idea's Bottom Line: Use Dr. Forsberg's Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System to manufacture
Dr. Olah's Carbon-Neutral Biosynfuels to replace all commonly used fossil combustion fuels.
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1. Dr. Charles Forsberg's "The Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System."

In 2007, Dr. Forsberg, a chemist and nuclear scientist from MIT and Oak Ridge Laboratories, prepared a slide show and academic paper to present a related concept to the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers .

 
Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Slides - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf    Quick slide show overview.
 
 Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Paper - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf   
Paper.

 (ABSTRACT)

Meeting U.S. Liquid Transport Fuel Needs with a Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System

Charles Forsberg

Dr. Forsberg's view: "The two major energy challenges for the United States are (1) replacing crude oil in our transportation system and (2) eliminating greenhouse gas emissions.

A strategy is proposed to meet the total liquid-fuel transport energy needs within 30 years by producing greenhouse-neutral liquid fuels using biomass as the feedstock and nuclear energy to provide the heat, electricity, and hydrogen required for operation of the biomass-to-fuels production facilities.

Biomass is produced from sunlight, atmospheric carbon dioxide, and water. Consequently, using liquid fuels from biomass has no net impacts on carbon dioxide levels because the carbon dioxide is being recycled to the atmosphere when the fuel is burnt. The U.S. could harvest about 1.3 billion tons of biomass per year without major impacts on food, fiber, or lumber costs.

The energy content of this biomass is about equal to 10 million barrels of diesel fuel per day; however, the actual net liquid-fuels production would be less than half of this amount after accounting for energy to process the biomass into liquid fuel. If nuclear energy is used to provide the energy in the form of heat, electricity, and hydrogen to support biomass growth and conversion to liquid fuels, the equivalent of over 12 million barrels of greenhouse-neutral diesel fuel per day can be produced. The combination of biomass and nuclear energy may ultimately meet the total U.S. transport fuel needs."
 - (Copy of text on slide 33, above, by Dr. Charles W. Forsberg.)
Conclusion: There is sufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid-fuel needs if the energy and hydrogen inputs for biomass-to-fuel processing plants are provided by advanced nuclear energy. 

     

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2. In 2006, Nobel Prize winning energy chemist, Dr. George A. Olah, published his influential book: "Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy."
(New edition coming out in July, 2018) 


Dr. Olah and his co-authors explored the different fuels that could be made from captured carbon dioxide; how they would be made, their advantages, shortcomings, and potential problems.
https://www.amazon.com/Beyond-Oil-Gas-Methanol-Economy/dp/3527324224      

Beyond Oil and Gas - Literature Seminar - Lit_T_Matsumoto_B4.pdf    A Japanese slide show presenting a quick overview of Dr. Olah's book.

Beyond Oil and Gas - Methanol Synthesis - Summary by George Olah.pdf    Dr. Olah's comments on Methanol Synthesis.

Beyond Oil and Gas - The Methanol Economy - Slide Presentation - R-Prakash-USC-May2014.pdf    A more detailed presentation.



 

Dr. Olah's view: Liquid hydrocarbons are a cheaper, safer, and more energy-dense way to store, handle, and use combustion energy than gaseous fuels such as hydrogen. 
Methanol can be a carbon-neutral lowest common denominator liquid combustion fuel for making most of the other liquid and gaseous fuels along with many other substances.

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A few of the images used in this website used to communicate energy's complex technical concepts. (Click to enlarge.)

                                   < "Recycled Fire", this website's logo.

   The key is to use nuclear molten salt's electricity and very hot heat lavishly to solve Climate Change energy problems.      

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             Click for individual equipment pages>       1      2      3      4      5      6      7      8      9 (Reversing Climate Change)      Back-arrow returns you to here.

Using Carbon-captured or Nuclear Energy to Replace Fossil Fuels with Biosynfuels

A Quick Tour Around The Clean Energy Park

1      Existing Coal Power Plant Sites: The image in the top banner depicts the starting point of perhaps the only feasible way 10 billion people can power an affluent modern life without creating more CO2.  The banner below it depicts an unneeded medium size coal power plant site converted to manufacture the basic energies needed to power affluent modern life - i.e., one where machines, not slaves, do most of life's grunt work without creating more CO2.

This industrial facility is called an "Energy Park". It's power - it's source of heat and electricity - is an advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) - unlike the nuclear reactors in use today. An energy park's products are electricity and carbon-neutral gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, methanol, and perhaps synthetic "natural" gas.

Existing coal power plant sites: already have the "Right Stuff" to manufacture and transmit electricity and the railroad, land, etc., facilities necessary to support the addition of equipment needed  to manufacture carbon-neutral combustion fuels.  (Check out the banner immediately above.) In some cases the coal part of the coal power plant will have already been decommissioned, the coal in the coal yard used up, making additional land available, the workers jobs terminated and the workers will be beginning to move away. A terrible loss since many possess skills and site knowledge that could form the maintenance cadre of an Energy Park's staff.

Existing coal power plants will soon be for sale very cheap all over the world and should be snapped up by energy companies interested in powering the world of the future. Worldwide, there are over 50,000 coal power plants, some 5,000 to 10,000 of them should be excellent candidates for upgrading into Clean Energy Parks. Medium size coal power plants tend to be located in areas with good access to biomass - rural for woody plants and agwaste, cities for garbage (MSW or Metropolitan Solid Waste) and sewage. Small coal power plants generally have sites and resources too small - and large coal power plants often have too much equipment in a tight site already. Growth space is provided by the existing coal storage area - something oil and natural gas power plants may not have.

2      New Electricity Generator Building:  Just as it is with buying an automobile where the engine, transmission, driveline and everything else are optimized for each other, the days of building nuclear reactors from an assortment of non-interoptimized components from lowest bidders are long gone.

3      SMRs or "Small Modular Reactors": There are a dazzling variety of over 50 different nuclear reactors on the drawing boards today, almost all SMRs, - SMRs are capable of producing amounts of electricity ranging from 5 megaWatts to 300 megaWatts, making heat at temperatures ranging from 550 degrees F to 900F, to 1,300F, to 1,800 degrees F, powered by both of the common natural nuclear fuels - uranium and thorium along with dozens of different blends of those two plus synthetic isotopes such as the plutoniums, and cooled by water, molten metallic sodium, a special kind of metallic lead, helium and carbon dioxide gas, in addition to several different kinds of molten salt, flowing thick and bright white-hot, looking for all the world like hot lava freshly thrown out of a volcano.

The particular nuclear reactor that has been chosen to power this Energy Park seems to be the best fit at this time. It's actually four 4-year exchangeable 250 mW SMRs-in-a-can, 2 connected in tandem and running, and 2 depleted used cans stored next to them letting the last of their radioactivity decay prior to being sent back to the factory for recycling. Check out ThorCon at: http://thorconpower.com/   

4      Hydrogen and Steam Generators: The steam generators and their associated water treatment systems will come as standard components in the nuclear power plant package. Hydrogen generators are not part of a nuclear electricity plant. Here is where we do something unthinkable if our electricity came from feeble, unreliable windmills - we use a big chunk of that nuclear electricity to make a lot of 1,800°F heat to power the sulfur-iodine thermochemical process of splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen.

5      Biomass Preparation:  Sewage, Garbage (Municipal Solid Waste), Agwaste (Manure, Corn Stover, Wood Pellets, and a thousand other plant things that make up Biomass), Black Liquor (the wood lignin waste product from paper making. Paper mills make a lot of it and they power themselves with it now. They will have to repower with tiny nuclear reactors.)

6      Plasma Gasifier: Carbon-neutral means that when the combustion fuels are burned they do not add new CO2 to the environment. If you think about the implications of the park's hotter than the sun (over 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit) plasma gasifier reducing garbage's molecular components to their basic atoms and embedded metals to stratified molten slag along with recycling carbon in the form of CO2, you may come to realize Clean Energy parks are a major gateway to an environmentally clean future.

7      Catalytic Biosynfuel Refinery:  The experts say "Use nuclear power to make methanol." I understand and believe them.

8      Carbon-neutral Direct Replacement Liquid Fuels:  A look at a few popular combustion fuels - methanol, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, natural gas (methane) - and how carbon-neutral versions can be synthesized economically.

9      Reversing Climate Change  Nuclear powered machines to suck climate changing CO2 back out of the air might be powerful enough to overcome the "The atmosphere is too big and the CO2 too dilute." issue sufficiently to take some of the edge off Climate Change.

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Miscellaneous Thoughts and Comments

Greenies are failing to stop Climate Change because they are doing decarbonization wrong. It's the carbon in fossil fuels that make them so damn practical. Consider how problematical hydrogen (a non-carbon gas) is to store and use as a fuel. Biosynfuels use carbon-neutral carbon, are as practical as real fossil fuels, and cause no more environmental harm than wind or solar.

"Around the world, billions of consumers voluntarily consume fossil fuels to live safe, comfortable, prosperous lives. Tens of thousands of companies and tens of millions of employees provide oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity to them. As such, plentiful, affordable, reliable energy is a global good with moral and enrichment implications—is, has been, will be." 
 - From "Climate Change Lawsuits: Please Excuse Us For Living" - by
Robert Bradley - http://dailycaller.com/2018/04/30/climate-change-lawsuits-please-excuse-us-for-living  

Prosperity stabilizes population.  A carbon-free, nuclear powered, prosperous, smaller population is what the world needs.  Nuclear energy - both the electricity and thermal kind - is any country's quickest, cheapest pathway to prosperity. With more cheap power per person, more people will find a way to use that ambient energy to travel a pathway to prosperity.
The United States spends 10,000 Watt-hour per day per person; Mexico, 2,000 W-hpd; Haiti, 500 W-hpd.

"In energy-poor societies, the energy cost of pregnancy and of bringing up another child is negligible compared to its labor contribution, which can start at a very early age. According to Seavoy (1986, 20), “Having many children (an average of four to six) and transferring labor to them at the earliest possible age is highly rational behavior in peasant societies, where the good life is equated with minimal labor expenditures, not with the possession of abundant material goods.”
 - Smil, Vaclav. "Energy and Civilization: A History" (MIT Press) (Kindle Locations 2455-2458). The MIT Press. Kindle Edition.

14 June 2018
Researchers have successfully used acrylic fibers to extract uranium from seawater in a trial conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The team say the technology, which uses inexpensive material, could be competitive with the costs of land-based uranium mining. The material was developed by Idaho-based clean energy company LCW Supercritical Technologies with early support from PNNL through the US Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy. Uranium in seawater is adsorbed onto a molecule that is chemically bound to the surface of the polymer fiber. The adsorbent properties are reversible, meaning that the uranium can be easily released and processed into yellowcake, and the polymer is durable and reusable. PNNL researcher Gary Gill described the achievement as a significant milestone, showing that the approach could eventually provide a commercially attractive option. "It might not sound like much, but it can really add up," he said.

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Renewables - wind, solar, etc., are clearly not enough. This gap in our energy needs can be met by small modular reactors producing electricity and synthetic biofuels.
Clean E
nergy Parks are the future of the electrical, oil, and nuclear industries.

1. Ultimately, the only way the world will stop using fossil fuels is when the energy industries themselves offer clean reliable electricity and carbon-neutral liquid fuels at less cost.
2. The Energy Park will use processes that are profitable, what sells best, clean, cost-effective, and need a lot of energy to make. This is why a nuclear reactor reactor was selected to be the park's energy source.
3. Typically, single boiler coal power plant sites like this are 50 to 200 megaWatts. A ThorCon reactor installation is 500 mW, this leaves plenty of spare energy for making additional clean energy park products.
4. If desired, the 300,000 ton-per-year plasma torch gasifier's syngas can be directly injected into national CO2 sequestration collection pipelines to immediately reduce the amount of climate changing CO2 in the air.
5. The flexible Energy Park idea can be implemented immediately as a pilot plant, in 2 years using a 50 mW NuScale nuclear reactor, in 4 years using a 500 mW ThorCon reactor.
6. This website is being created now to give readers a several year head start on detail planning their own Clean Energy Park before the coming herd of Generation 4 nuclear reactors hits the market.
https://thirdway.imgix.net/downloads/the-advanced-nuclear-industry-2016-update/the-advanced-nuclear-industry-2016-update_032717.pdf 
7. It's critically important that you, the readers, have a clear understanding of what "Carbon Neutral" (CO2-neutral) fire means:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_neutrality 

       Biosynfuels will become the primary products for oil companies as decarbonization makes fossil fuels unmarketable.

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What's the big advantage behind having Clean Energy Parks powered by nuclear instead of Wind Farms and Solar Gardens?

The essence of fire is the conversion of a hydrocarbon such as natural gas CH4 (methane) into heat, H20 (water), and CO2 (carbon dioxide). Click  
CO2 also happens to be Planet Earth's major thermostat gas and thus the major cause of Climate Change.
 Click       

Clean Energy Parks, unlike windmills and solar cells, immediately stop the further growth of Climate Change by RECYCLING A FIRE'S CO2 back into a fuel. (Look again at the image at the top of this page.)

Clean Energy Parks use nuclear heat to extract from plants (biomass) the carbon dioxide (CO2) fossil fuels added to the air in the past when they burned. Using some more nuclear heat to power some chemistry, this CO2 is then converted into fossil fuel equivalents thus rendering fossil fuels obsolete. We can then burn these equivalent fuels instead to power our cars and trucks, cook our food, and heat our houses, etc. As with fossil fuels, when this recycled CO2 burns, it becomes heat, water, and CO2 released into the air again. This CO2 would be eventually captured again by biomass (plant leaves) and recycled again into fossil fuel equivalents again.

Recycling fire stops Climate Change's growth but doesn't force us to give up all the ways we use fire to power our daily lives.

Worldwide, there are over 50,000 coal power plant sites with more than 5,000 of them being excellent candidates for upgrading to Clean Energy Parks. Clean Energy Parks will enable mankind to replace the burning of fossil fuels with biosynfuels in ratios equivalent to locally used fossil fuels to quickly halt Climate Change's further intensification without giving up any of the benefits those local fossil fuels have brought different countries.

Clean Energy Parks are intended to enable power-plant and oil companies to also produce and sell clean versions of the various energies we now obtain from fossil fuels - namely, electricity and heat in the form of gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, natural gas - along with Combined Heat and Power (CHP) services for district heating of Northern communities.

Just as we can do with nuclear electricity, we can quickly stop Climate Change's growth in the liquid and gaseous fossil fuel applications area.

The advantage of using naturally safe, battery-like, underground, Molten Salt nuclear Reactors (MSRs) is that MSRs will produce the necessary amounts of energy needed to enable you to manufacture both electricity and carbon-free/neutral heating fuels without having to mess around very much with things nuclear. MSRs are a different nuclear animal and when the reactor goes away, so does the radioactivity.

Directions for using a molten salt nuclear reactor: (1) Lease a fresh "reactor in a can" that fits your reactor facility, (2) Lower it into your power plant's reactor silo, (3) Connect it to the steam and hydrogen generation equipment, (4) Initialize it, then run it for 4 to 7 years (depending upon who made it - there are going to be several different manufacturers such as ThorCon, Terrestrial, etc.), (5) When the fuel is depleted, lock the reactor off, (6) Disconnect it, (7) Lift it out of the underground reactor silo, and lower it into a nearby radiation decay and heat decay (cool-down) underground silo for another 4 to 7 years to make it safe for shipping on public roads. (8) Later, a reactor truck, railroad car, or barge will arrive with another fresh reactor, (9) After new reactor delivery, the old, and now cooled-down reactor-in-a-can can be safely transported back to the factory to be refurbished by robots, refueled with fresh fuelsalt, and leased again to some other Energy Park. 

For more ThorCon reactor details, see:  ThorConIsle - Design Paper.pdf   and   ThorCon exec_summary.pdf 

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Why Clean Energy Parks are the future of the electrical, oil, natural gas, and nuclear industries.

       

The diagram below shows that if you eliminate carbon (Decarbonize) the only common combustion fuel that could be used on demand (when needed) would be hydrogen.

Carbon makes combustion fuels convenient (practical). Fire's unavoidable waste product is carbon dioxide (CO2) which is dumped into the air, causing Climate Change.

To avoid causing more Climate change, we can make combustion fuels by first removing some CO2 from the air, then adding some hydrogen from water to it to make it into a liquid fuel such as methanol or a gas such as methane, burning it, using the heat that is produced to move your car or cook your food, returning the hydrogen to the air in the form of water and returning the carbon to the air in the form of carbon dioxide. This is the definition of "carbon-neutral".

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Prosperity stabilizes population. 

A carbon-free, nuclear powered, prosperous, smaller population is what the world needs.  Nuclear energy - both the electricity and thermal kind - is any country's quickest, cheapest pathway to prosperity. With more cheap power per person, more people will find a way to use that ambient energy to travel a pathway to prosperity. The United States spends 10,000 Watt-hour per day per person; Mexico, 2,000 W-hpd; Haiti, 500 W-hpd.

"In energy-poor societies, the energy cost of pregnancy and of bringing up another child is negligible compared to its labor contribution, which can start at a very early age. According to Seavoy (1986, 20), “Having many children (an average of four to six) and transferring labor to them at the earliest possible age is highly rational behavior in peasant societies, where the good life is equated with minimal labor expenditures, not with the possession of abundant material goods.”
 - Smil, Vaclav. Energy and Civilization: A History (MIT Press) (Kindle Locations 2455-2458). The MIT Press. Kindle Edition.

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Key: There is sufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid-fuel needs provided the energy and hydrogen inputs for biomass-to-fuel processing plants are provided by advanced nuclear reactors.
Biomass - US DOE  2016_billion_ton_report_.pdf 

Why plasma gasification of biomass was picked. You can get an idea of the performance of plasma gasification of biomass
from this paper by Czech Republic Milan Hrabovsky, Institute of Plasma Physics, ASCR: 
Thermal Plasma Gasification - 19.316.pdf  also:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_torch  

                     How Plasma Torch Pyrolyzation Works:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWAG4SCZo10
                     Alter Plasma (Westinghouse):  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBqx8t-YLrw
                     Alter Overview Video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrYJof510NU    
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPRa31dS0vA 
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ut3I7OIPFR8 
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7gzdFGc3y4 
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kI7s6IRpOHA
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=15bVXLrBW2o 

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 (Reminder) Being "carbon neutral" means removing as much carbon dioxide from the air as we will return to the air.

      Methanol Economy

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Footnotes & Links

 

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This website is still in it's draft phase.
The candidate document's footnote numbers go with a private database. Copy the document's title and submit it to Google. The document may still be posted on the Internet.