StoppingClimateChange.com                                                                                                               Introduction
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Prologue          Introduction          1  Unneeded Old Coal Power Plant          2  New Electricity Generator Building          3a  NuScale Underground Nuclear Reactor          3b  ThorCon Underground Nuclear Reactor         

4  Hydrogen and Steam Generators          5  Biomass Preparation          6  Plasma Torch Biomass Gasifier          7  Biosynfuel Refinery          8  Biosynfuel Product Processes          9  Beyond Energy Parks

Introduction: Stopping Climate Change's Growth

 

             This page introductory paragraphs links:      1      2      3      4      5      6      7      8      9      Back-arrow returns you to here.

 

Here is why Stopping Climate Change's Growth Quickly should be mankind's goal.

Fifty-six million years ago, Earth passed through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). During the PETM, the planet’s average temperature climbed as high as 15 degrees Fahrenheit above what we experience today. It was a world almost without ice, as typical summer temperatures at the poles reached close to a balmy 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Crocodile fossils have been found on Heiberg Island, not very far from the North Pole.

It's not unreasonable to think Climate Change's growth (intensification) might be halted before it gets that bad.

It is unreasonable to think man can suck enough Climate Changing carbon dioxide (CO2) back out of the air to return Planet Earth to it's optimal climate state before the industrial age. THERE IS ALREADY TOO MUCH CLIMATE-CHANGING CO2 IN THE AIR and no known practical technology to remove all the excess CO2 from the air by 2100. The atmosphere is too big and the CO2 too dilute.

So, how bad are things going to get?

If humankind continues to emit greenhouse gases unabated, the average global temperature by 2100 will be about 5.2 degrees Celsius (9.4 degrees Fahrenheit) higher than pre-Industrial Revolution levels.

The goal is not to exceed 2C (3.6F). Ever.

But even if countries fully honour the carbon-curbing pledges they submitted to bolster the hoped-for Paris pact, average warming will be 3C (5.4F) by century's end, scientists say.

The year 2015 is set to hit the 1C (1.8F) mark—halfway to the targeted ceiling.



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2015-12-climate-bad.html#jCp
If humankind continues to emit greenhouse gases unabated, the average global temperature by 2100 will be about 5.2 degrees Celsius (9.4 degrees Fahrenheit) higher than pre-Industrial Revolution levels.

The goal is not to exceed 2C (3.6F). Ever.

But even if countries fully honour the carbon-curbing pledges they submitted to bolster the hoped-for Paris pact, average warming will be 3C (5.4F) by century's end, scientists say.

The year 2015 is set to hit the 1C (1.8F) mark—halfway to the targeted ceiling.



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2015-12-climate-bad.html#jCp
If humankind continues to emit greenhouse gases unabated, the average global temperature by 2100 will be about 5.2 degrees Celsius (9.4 degrees Fahrenheit) higher than pre-Industrial Revolution levels.

The goal is not to exceed 2C (3.6F). Ever.

But even if countries fully honour the carbon-curbing pledges they submitted to bolster the hoped-for Paris pact, average warming will be 3C (5.4F) by century's end, scientists say.

The year 2015 is set to hit the 1C (1.8F) mark—halfway to the targeted ceiling.



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2015-12-climate-bad.html#jCp

"If humankind continues to emit greenhouse gasses unabated, the average global temperature by 2100 will be about 5.2 degrees Celsius (9.4 degrees Fahrenheit) higher than pre-Industrial Revolution levels.

The goal is to not exceed 2C (3.6F).  EVER.

But even if countries fully honor the carbon-curbing pledges they submitted to bolster the hoped-for Paris pact, average warming will be 3C (5.4F) cy century's end, scientists say.

The year 2015 is set to hit the 1C (1.8F) mark - halfway to the targeted ceiling."  - - - For the remainder of this article, see:  https://phys.org/news/2015-12-climate-bad.html 

 

This means we must do far better than what we are doing now.

Energy Parks have be more effective at stopping Climate Change's growth than Wind Farms and Solar Gardens.
Others will have to quantify how much better Energy Farms are, but common sense tells you that to do our best, industrial strength electricity is what's needed to deal with the Climate Change emergency.

 

With well over 5,000 unneeded coal power plant sites available for conversion to Energy Parks worldwide, it is reasonable to think man can simultaneously, quickly, and economically both rebuild his energy sources to halt the growth of Climate Change quickly while massively growing his access to powerful, cheap, clean, and reliable mass energy.

If this seems a little far-fetched to you, re-read the Prologue to learn how the anti-nuclear environmentalists bungled mankind's best opportunity to minimize Climate Change.

 

A Quick Tour Around The Energy Park

1      Existing Coal Power Plant Sites: The image in the top banner depicts the starting point of perhaps the only feasible way 10 billion people can power an affluent modern life without creating more CO2.  The banner below it depicts an unneeded medium size coal power plant site converted to manufacture the basic energies needed to power affluent modern life - i.e., one where machines, not slaves, do most of life's grunt work without creating more CO2.

This industrial facility is called an "Energy Park". It's power - it's source of heat and electricity - is an advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) - unlike the nuclear reactors in use today. An energy park's products are electricity and carbon-neutral gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, methanol, and perhaps synthetic "natural" gas.

Existing coal power plant sites: already have the "Right Stuff" to manufacture and transmit electricity and the railroad, land, etc., facilities necessary to support the addition of equipment needed  to manufacture carbon-neutral combustion fuels.  (Check out the banner immediately above.) In some cases the coal part of the coal power plant will have already been decommissioned, the coal in the coal yard used up, making additional land available, the workers jobs terminated and the workers will be beginning to move away. A terrible loss since many possess skills and site knowledge that could form the maintenance cadre of an Energy Park's staff.

Existing coal power plants will soon be for sale very cheap all over the world and should be snapped up by energy companies interested in powering the world of the future. Worldwide, there are over 50,000 coal power plants, some 5,000 to 10,000 of them should be excellent candidates for upgrading into Energy Parks. Medium size coal power plants tend to be located in areas with good access to biomass - rural for woody plants and agwaste, cities for garbage (MSW or Metropolitan Solid Waste) and sewage. Small coal power plants generally have sites and resources too small - and large coal power plants often have too much equipment in a tight site already. Growth space is provided by the existing coal storage area - something oil and natural gas power plants may not have.

2      New Electricity Generator Building:  Just as it is with buying an automobile where the engine, transmission, driveline and everything else are optimized for each other, the days of building nuclear reactors from an assortment of non-interoptimized components from lowest bidders are long gone.

3      SMRs or "Small Modular Reactors": There are a dazzling variety of over 50 different nuclear reactors on the drawing boards today, almost all SMRs, - SMRs are capable of producing amounts of electricity ranging from 5 megaWatts to 300 megaWatts, making heat at temperatures ranging from 550 degrees F to 900F, to 1,300F, to 1,800 degrees F, powered by both of the common natural nuclear fuels - uranium and thorium along with dozens of different blends of those two plus synthetic isotopes such as the plutoniums, and cooled by water, molten metallic sodium, a special kind of metallic lead, helium and carbon dioxide gas, in addition to several different kinds of molten salt, flowing thick and bright white-hot, looking for all the world like hot lava freshly thrown out of a volcano.

The particular nuclear reactor that has been chosen to power this Energy Park seems to be the best fit at this time. It's actually four 4-year exchangeable 250 mW SMRs-in-a-can, 2 connected in tandem and running, and 2 depleted used cans stored next to them letting the last of their radioactivity decay prior to being sent back to the factory for recycling. Check out ThorCon at: http://thorconpower.com/   

4      Hydrogen and Steam Generators: The steam generators and their associated water treatment systems will come as standard components in the nuclear power plant package. Hydrogen generators are not part of a nuclear electricity plant. Here is where we do something unthinkable if our electricity came from feeble, unreliable windmills - we use a big chunk of that nuclear electricity to make a lot of 1,800°F heat to power the sulfur-iodine thermochemical process of splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen.

5      Biomass Preparation:  Sewage, Garbage (Municipal Solid Waste), Agwaste (Manure, Corn Stover, Wood Pellets, and a thousand other plant things that make up Biomass), Black Liquor (the wood lignin waste product from paper making. Paper mills make a lot of it and they power themselves with it now. They will have to repower with tiny nuclear reactors.)

6      Plasma Gasifier: Carbon-neutral means that when the combustion fuels are burned they do not add new CO2 to the environment. If you think about the implications of the park's hotter than the sun (over 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit) plasma gasifier reducing garbage's molecular components to their basic atoms and embedded metals to stratified molten slag along with recycling carbon in the form of CO2, you may come to realize energy parks are a major gateway to an environmentally clean future.

7      Catalytic Biosynfuel Refinery:  The experts say "Use nuclear power to make methanol." I understand and believe them.

8      Carbon-neutral Direct Replacement Liquid Fuels:  A look at a few popular combustion fuels - methanol, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, natural gas (methane) - and how carbon-neutral versions can be synthesized economically.

9      Beyond Energy Parks:  Nuclear powered machines to suck climate changing CO2 back out of the air might be powerful enough to overcome the "The atmosphere is too big and the CO2 too dilute." issue sufficiently to take the remaining edge off Climate Change.

 

 

 

About The Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System

Electrify everything possible, obtain fire from biosynfuels.

The electricity part is easy and relatively efficient. The fire part is very difficult and relatively inefficient.

Fire (combustion) is what Climate Change is all about. You should at least understand how natural gas (CH4) combustion works.

Dr. Forsberg's slides: Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Slides - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf    Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Paper - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf

Dr. Olah's book (and many others) detail the economic manufacture of a large variety of combustion biosynfuels from high quality synthesis gas which can be obtained by plasma torch pyrolysis of biomass.

                      

Key: There is sufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid-fuel needs provided the energy and hydrogen inputs for biomass-to-fuel processing plants are provided by advanced nuclear reactors.
Biomass - US DOE  2016_billion_ton_report_.pdf 

Why plasma gasification was picked. You can get an idea of the performance of plasma gasification of biomass
from this paper by Czech Republic Milan Hrabovsky, Institute of Plasma Physics, ASCR: 
Thermal Plasma Gasification - 19.316.pdf  also:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_torch  

                     How Plasma Torch Pyrolyzation Works:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWAG4SCZo10
                     Alter Plasma (Westinghouse):  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBqx8t-YLrw
                     Alter Overview Video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrYJof510NU    
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPRa31dS0vA 
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ut3I7OIPFR8 
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7gzdFGc3y4 
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kI7s6IRpOHA
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=15bVXLrBW2o 

 

 

 

 

                    
The standard black fossil carbon methanol molecule is NOT carbon-neutral.  (Methanol is one of many alcohols.  Any methanol molecule will make you blind.  DON'T DRINK THEM!)
Is one carbon (the "C" atom in the molecule) really black and the other carbon really green? 
No,
but where they came from - black indicating from the ground, green from the air, matters a lot since once it's burned it stays in the air, adding to global warming.
Carbon-positive means carbon is removed from the ground, then added to the air.
Carbon neutral means carbon is removed from the air, then returned to the air.
Carbon-negative means carbon is removed from the air, then placed in the ground.
Burning a carbon-neutral molecule doesn't add to, or diminish from, Global Warming (it's neutral).
 

(Below) Other examples of carbons we can burn and add to our air.

 


The world is swimming in carbon. It's the carbon we have added to the air that has become Planet Earth's greenhouse gas blanket.

 

 

Catalytic bed for converting carbon monoxide gas and hydrogen gas to burnable methane gas to heat our houses and/or burnable methanol liquid to power our cars.
Either fossil carbon or carbon-neutral carbon works just as well. Fire doesn't care.

 

 (Reminder) Being "carbon neutral" means removing as much carbon dioxide from the air as we will return to the air.

      Methanol Economy

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Footnotes & Links

 

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