StoppingClimateChange.com                                                                                                                                                                                 BLOG    Contents    Definitions    Prolog    About   
INTRODUCTION:  Attacking Climate Change From Both Ends    Harvesting and Burying Climate Changing CO
2    CO2 Disposal Wells    A Biomass Allam Cycle Power Plant    The Electricity & Hydrogen Nuke Next Door    Water    Geoengineering
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Despite climate change promises, governments plan to ramp up fossil fuel production.  1.000.00.11
The hard truth is it's nearly certain the planet will soar past 1.5°C, and very likely 2°C.
Cutting Tomorrow's Climate Pollution Isn't Enough --
We Also Need To Remove Yesterday's Climate Pollution
We've Forgotten About What's Causing Today's Climate Change Disasters - We Need To Be Attacking Climate Change From Both Ends.
This is a practical way to begin phasing out both tomorrow's and yesterday's Global Warming CO
2.
Allam Cycle Biomass + Clean-Coal Power Plants Can Attack Climate Change From Either End.

     

THE BIG IDEA: This is a suggestion intended to enable the world's 125 low-income countries to provide large amounts of low-cost electricity to their citizens for industrial and commercial development by powering their countries with local biomass.
A key insight underpinning the Allam Cycle is that supercritical CO2 is a more effective turbine working fluid than either air or steam. - 2.306.07
125+/- small countries siphoning carbon out of the air by growing biomass over the years and burning it to make cheap electricity will eventually have a substantial impact on the atmosphere's CO2 ppm level.


Thousands of cities.  2,329 of their power plants are currently coal plants that could be replaced by Allam Cycle plants equipped with biomass fuel adaptors pulling CO2 out of the air.
Isolated dots indicate less wealthy areas.  You can see where the Allam cycle power plant's unique tandem Coal + Biomass Electricity with Carbon Capture and Storage technology is sorely needed.

The recently invented Allam Cycle power plant burns natural gas - called Methane or CH4 - and emits pure pressurized liquid carbon dioxide in a pipe ready for permanent underground disposal.

Biomass can be converted into synthetic natural gas. When powered by Biomass, the growing plants powering the Allam power plants were pulling Climate Changing CO2 out of the air to grow.
The commercial version of the Allam Cycle power plant will be a Toshiba 284 megaWatt(e) plant. 284 mW(e) is a large power plant - big enough to power a medium-size American city. You need big electricity plants to build a country's wealth quickly. Consider China's success in using this approach.

When producing it's full 284 mW(e) of electricity, a biomass syngas powered Allam power plant is removing CO2 from the air at the rate of about a million tons per year. Imagine how much the world would benefit if there were 125 small countries with 2,000 power plants locked into removing 2 billion tons of CO2 from the air every year instead of adding 2 billion tons of coal's CO2 to the air. Those small countries are going to modernize. We'd be fools not to GIVE them biomass powered Allam Cycle power plants in exchange for them harvesting and burning their own biomass rather than buying and importing coal.

It may be a mistake, but here is a link to a youtube presentation of this idea by Graciela Chichilnisky, author of the book "Reversing Climate Change":  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A2sNSDlB_Yk 

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The Legacy CO2 Emissions We Are Feeling
 Need At Least As Much Attention As The Fresh CO
2 Emissions We Are Going To Feel

"Captured carbon from coal" (Climate Change's head) are fresh CO2 emissions that have been prevented from being added to the air.  
"Captured carbon from air" (Climate Change's tail) are old CO2 emissions that have been removed from the air to reduce Climate Change ppm.

Blending synthetic natural gas (methane) from coal and biomass for fuel wherever there are cities that use substantial amounts of electricity could soon reduce Planet Earth's air CO2 to it's natural 280 ppm level, thus ending Climate Change.
One extraordinary advantage of the Allam Cycle is the fact that it's native fuel is standard natural gas (Methane). Many biofuels can be processed to synthesize this fuel.
  https://netpower.com/                 https://netpower.com/technology/
https://www.cnn.com/videos/tv/2021/11/07/exp-gps-1107-geo-engineering-the-planet.cnn 

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Third-world Allam Biomass BECCS Atmospheric CO2 Mitigation & Economic Development Power Plant


 

United States, First and Second-world Allam Biomass BECCS Atmospheric CO2 Mitigation Power Plant

The major constraint at this time is that your author does not know of any biomass gasifier quite large enough to keep up with the 284 megaWatt Allam power plant - so additive fuel blending is necessary.
We're into massive amounts of biomass fuel being converted into massive amounts of captured CO2 when we are considering big city utility multiple-generating unit power plants.

The most advanced large BECCS gasifiers have been manufactured by the Westinghouse Plasma Company, with 30 years of experience in developing Metropolitan Solid Waste (MSW) gasifiers - 100 million dollar plasma research center, 22 patents - as technology to convert garbage and coal into clean electricity. That division of Westinghouse was sold to the Canadian Waste-to-Energy company 'AlterNRG'. In 2015, Harvest International New Energy, Inc., a Delaware corporation owned by “multibillion-dollar company” Sunshine Kaidi New Energy Group Co. of China bought the Westinghouse holdings from AlterNRG. As far as this author knows, Sunshine Kaidi  is where you will have to go to get a Switchgrass gasifier large enough to keep up with the 284 megaWatt Allam Cycle electricity generator.

Any mode these plants run in meet the objectives of Paris 2050, any Biomass fuel burning also meets the objectives of BEYOND Paris 2050.

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Many CO2 Disposal Wells can be co-located on the same site as their CO2 capturing equipment.

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Typical Electricity Demands

    

Widespread electric car use would probably push Base Load up into the 5,000 megaWatt region in this diagram.

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 For more Allam Cycle:    Upgrading the natural gas Allam Cycle Power Plant to a Biomass Power Plant

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Climate Change's Head:   Carbon Captured COAL Electricity Technology Captures 100% of the Climate Changing CO2 And Buries it Forever.
Climate Change's Tail:   Tandem BECCS BIOMASS Electricity Technology Sucks Global Warming's CO
2 Out Of The Air And Buries it Forever.

Repairing the Air with tandem BECCS electricity is better for the world's Environments and Economies than either Renewables or Nuclear electricity
Adding tandem BECCS Electricity to coal electricity Allam power plants restores common-sense to the world's energy sources and economics. 
The way to accomplish this is described on the page "Upgrading the Allam Cycle Power Plant to a tandem BECCS Power Plant", linked above.

The current 2050 Paris Agreement goals program largely ignores repairing the air
by not building large numbers of BECCS power plants into second and third world countries.
This website's purpose is to raise awareness of, and preparation for, what needs to be done in addition to successfully completing the "Paris Net Zero Emissions by 2050" agreement.

Tutorial on how the GREAT OCEAN CONVEYOR BELT works:  https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/tutorial_currents/05conveyor2.html 

See also:    https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg1/     AR6 Climate Change 2021: 'The Physical Science Basis'    The full 2021 IPCC AR6 report is now available for downloading.

The 'Climate Change Agenda' as it is now is divided.

Part 1 is the most important thing mankind should be doing, but part 2 should also be enhancing part 1 efforts.
Part 2 (Large Scale Direct Air CO2 Capture and Sequestration) should be implemented concurrently with Part 1 and as insurance against major Part 1 failures.
All IPCC pathways that limit global warming to 1.5°C by 2050 currently include small amounts of Direct CO2 removal from the atmosphere - with up to 20 billion tons per year of atmospheric CO2
removal if necessary to achieve that target. That means we may have to be removing CO2 from the atmosphere at a rate of up to half of current total global emissions by 2050.
Scaling up Part 2 (Direct Air Capture) should not impact Part 1 funds.

Part 2 is the part any organization anywhere can get their hands on to help both themselves and the entire world at once.

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What If Parts Of Paris 2050 Fail?

Without help from oil-producing countries, net zero by 2050 is a distant dream

https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/beceb956-0dcf-4d73-89fe-1310e3046d68/NetZeroby2050-ARoadmapfortheGlobalEnergySector_CORR.pdf        (224 pages)

This 2021 International Energy Agency study calls for capturing and storing 4 Billion tons of CO2 (4 Gt CO2) per year by 2035, 7.6 Billion tons of CO2 (7.6 Gt CO2) per year by 2050. - p20

Despite climate change promises, governments plan to ramp up fossil fuel production.  1.000.00.11 - Oct.20, 2021.

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About re-establishing the original 280 parts per million of CO2 in the air
Since the end of the last Ice Age, the world has had a natural 280 ppm of CO2 in the air.  Not too hot, not too cold. 
Among other things, 280 ppm kept the world from turning into 'Snowball Earth'

 We have to remove the Legacy Excess CO2 remaining in the air to reset Planet Earth's Thermostat back to where it should be.

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Restoring Planet Earth's Temperature To The 'Benign Climate Period' Is Mankind's Only Practical Future.

The world's temperature has been all over the thermometer but we like it best at 280 parts CO2 per million.

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Understanding Climate Change: Keeping Climate Change Terms Sorted Out -
Concepts Used Frequently In Climate Change Part 1 and Less Frequently In Climate Change Part 2

 

Cement, iron and steel, and chemicals account for about 20 percent of global CO2 emissions.
Emissions from these industries are notoriously difficult to abate because, in addition to emissions associated with energy use, a significant portion of industrial emissions come from the process itself.

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Understanding How Fire Works
Why Can't Energy Companies Process Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas To Be Carbon-free Fossil Fuels? 
Because They Can't.  See Below.

The 'Thermal View' diagram above shows why carbon's essential contribution to fire will always give it a key place in the world's Energy Pantheon.

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Carbon Deposits of Planet Earth

Our Energy Future: We will have to learn to render harmless the fossil fuels we can't learn to live without.

    Allam Cycle Big Clean Fossil Fuel Combustion Electricity  

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About the Easy-to-Use Combustion Fuels: Their Different Hydrogen-to-Carbon Ratios

Only carbon-neutral wood and carbon-free hydrogen are safe default burning candidates as fuels of the forever future.
Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas were the easy-picking energies.

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https://www.skycoolsystems.com/              https://www.1pointfive.com/about  

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Comments about this website

As it happens, this website will be emerging over the next several months in much the same manner as a blog. It will be the writings of an engineer who has had several career encounters with Climate Change since the mid-1950s - before it was generally realized Climate Change existed - had a name, and, until the 1990s, was not considered an existential threat to humanity. While vague hints of long-term changes in the weather were detected as early as the mid-1800s but not realized as significant, the changes brought about by Climate Change between 1990 and today have been amazing.

For the author, it's as if he has been magically moved to a climate at least 300 miles south since 1970. The changes between now and 2050 have the potential to be far more startling in both the climate we will experience and humanity's response to it. Scientists, policy makers and military analysts are beginning to increasingly realize that climate change is also leading to rapid globally destabilizing events like drought-driven mass migrations, civil wars and other unforseeable forms of mass societal unrest.

These circumstances make implementing as many full-size Direct Air CO2 Capturing installations as possible imperative now, not justifying a leisurely waiting until after a future formal assessment of the final results of the Paris decarbonization agreements post 2050.

The inspiration for revising my 'Hobby Web Site' along it's present lines emerged from a paper written by Noah McQueen, Peter Kelemen, Greg Dipple, and Jennifer Wilcox: "Ambient weathering of magnesium oxide for CO2 removal from air", Published by NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | (2020)11:3299 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s4167-02016510-3 |   Nature Communications   https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-16510-3  
 
An excellent color pdf of the paper is available for downloading from the internet.
 Please visit and download your own free pdf Creative Commons copy of this paper for your personal understanding and reference.

Your author is a long-retired registered control system engineer with experience in multiple electrical utility and heavy industrial chemical process application projects who is suggesting an industrialized agricultural variant of the above basic magnesite Direct Air CO2 Capture idea. It appears to be well-suited for use within the economic and cultural contexts of many of the 180 or so countries of the world having largely agriculture-based economies. By having CO2 farming local, we keep the money and concern for correct repairing of the air local everywhere in the world.

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SciAm.com - Earth & Environment

QUOTE OF THE DAY
 

"Climate change poses an existential threat to our lives, to our economy, and the threat is here. It's not going to get any better.
We can stop it from getting worse."

Joe Biden, President of the United States via Reuters

 

"Climate change is real and mostly caused by dumping fossil fuel wastes in the air" - Rod Adams

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