StoppingClimateChange.com                                                                                           Carbon-neutral Combustion Fuels
Home Page    Site Map (Contents & Chapters)    This Chapter's Subdirectory    Footnotes & Links
 
Carbon-neutral Combustion Fuels

________________________________________________________________

Two Ways to pull Climate Changing CO2 OUT of the Air to Make Biofuels

1.  Nuclear Powered Direct Air CO2 Capture (DACC) for synthetic biofuels

(Note: This image was posted by Carbon Engineering, Calgary, Canada, on their web site.  This air scrubber was engineered to be powered by carbon captured natural gas.  Their second prototype
In one paper, they estimated 1/2 ton of natural gas CO2 was produced [and also captured] by the scrubber for each ton of CO2 extracted from the air - a pretty good ratio.  There are several small very high temperature advanced nuclear reactors (VHTRs) that have been built in the past and run safely for long periods of time that could power a much larger version of Carbon Engineering's DACC while producing ZERO collateral CO2.)

 "Skyscrubber", Nuclear Powered Direct Air CO2 Capture System  >        
 

2.  Biofuel Energy Carbon Capture and Sequestration (BECCS) for natural biofuels
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage - better known as "BECCS" - has come to be seen as one of the most viable Climate Change emissions technologies.
The United States has over 3,000 of these small power plants - schools, hospitals, etc. - that could be modified like this to become emissions-competitive with either wind or solar.

   (Carbon-neutrality lesson in Washington, D.C.)    To Article  > 
Adding CO
2 capture equipment to the U.S. Capitol's power house.
 
"The Congress of the United States should not only be a model for the nation, but also a good neighbor." - - - Nancy Pelosi
We can make our Capitol the world's first "super-green" CARBON-NEGATIVE capitol.
Not unlike the catalytic converter to your car's exhaust system. 
This over 90% effective technology should be demonstrated to the world with a project like this.

________________________________________________________________

 Introducing clean replacements for Natural Gas, Gasoline, Diesel, and Jet Fuel.

Renewable Methanol:
Fire fuel
molecules that can be CO2-neutral and cheap to synthesize.
(Below) The CO2-neutral "Meth" molecules we can make from CO2 (from air) + Hydrogen (from water) and burn in today's cars instead of Gasoline or Ethanol.
Natural Gas IS Methane, so while it would be CO2-neutral, its combustion characteristics would remain the same as natural gas.
A similar propane-like molecule, dimethyl ether, makes a good substitute for Diesel (it has a higher Cetane index).

                                                      
         (Gas) CO2-neutral Natural Gas Replacement                     (Liquid) CO2-neutral Gasoline Substitute  (Like gasoline, it's toxic.)

                                              
 Flex-Fuel cars (Gasoline and/or Ethanol E85) could have their computers reprogrammed to include Methanol M85.        
                                        
Methanol is cheap. "If you want economy, use methanol.  If you want range, use gasoline.  If you want neither, use ethanol."
        METHANOL - Proponents of Methanol Economy win 1 Million Dollar Prize .pdf                        Methanol Institute: http://www.methanol.org/ 

Like ethanol, methanol is a member of the alcohol family.  Your author would be less than honest if he did not point out that, like gasoline, methanol is toxic.   DON'T DRINK IT.

"Methanol has the ability to liberate humankind from its dependence on fossil fuels for transportation and hydrocarbon products by allowing these to be produced by a technical hydrogenative recycling of CO2, supplementing and in many aspects eliminating limitations of natures photosynthetic cycle." -- Olah, George A,  Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy (pp. 181-182). Wiley. Kindle Edition.

 ________________________________________________________________

Using Carbon Capture - not nuclear - to make Clean Big Electricity
A big electricity source quick enough to fill in wind and solar's drop-outs
 ________________________________________________________________

This is the best source of electricity the United States can hope for over the next decade or so. It can be up to half as powerful as a nuclear plant. A power plant like this typically costs 1/5 as much as nuclear per kiloWatt-hour, is usually built and running in 1 year instead of 10, and, since it is physically small and doesn't use massive amounts of cooling water, can be built near population centers almost anywhere.  The cruel irony of additional energy consumption due to carbon capture is minimized by the integral heating of the amine reboiler.

Combined cycle power plants are already the cleanest available source of fossil fuel electricity. Adding an integral amine carbon capture unit to it's exhaust will reduce it's small CO2 emissions 90%. Running a carbon-captured power plant on biofuel oil and disposing of the captured biofuel CO2 by injecting it into the ground will produce NEGATIVE CO2 EMISSIONS.

Since it is powered by fast responding jet engines rather than fixed-output coal, when attached to a grid that is also being powered by wind and solar cells, it can do an excellent job of filling in wind and solar's inevitable and frequent power drop-outs.

    
(Above) The actual output of a utility-size solar cell array as recorded between 4:00 AM and 9:00 PM. 

    

(Above) General Electric's combined cycle electricity plant could be built as fuel and emissions agile carbon capture.
Any existing combined cycle power plants can have integral amine carbon capture added if they have about 4 acres of available space near the heat recovery steam generators.

________________________________________________________________


How the technologies of Electricity from Nuclear & Fire from Biofuels will be interconnected 
About the individual technologies:  1>  2>  3> 4>  5>  6>  7>  8>  9>  10>  11>  12>  13>  14>  15>  16>  17>

________________________________________________________________

Footnotes & Links

________________________________________________________________