Chapter: Banner Explanation
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Banner Explanation

Stopping Climate Change by replacing fossil fuels with equivalent biofuels.

Explanations:    A                           B  C                            D                         E                                                      F G H                    
Climate Change is a chemistry problem.                 Guidance for Upgrading Our Energy Systems in the face of Climate Change, Rising Energy Demand, and Legacy Infrastructure.
Switching to windmills clearly has the potential for bringing chaos to modern civilization. Replacing fossil fuels with carbon-neutral equivalents is a much
safer, quicker, and cheaper path.


The Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass Energy System - slides
(Nuclear isn't necessarily a prerequisite.)


A  Harvesting biomass for manufacturing into synthetic biofuel.

It is practical to capture air's carbon dioxide (CO2) by extracting it from biomass using plasma gasifiers.  See also Number 8, Below.
(Click on image to enlarge Image.)

          Billion Ton Biomass Report.                        

If non-biomass energy - either carbon-captured fossil heat or nuclear heat - is used to convert the biofeedstock into fossil fuel substitutes, it is possible a billion tons of biofeedstock per year would be sufficient to end future accumulating CO2 emissions from the United States.

Dr. Forsberg's slides and paper show how: Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Slides - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf   
Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Paper - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf

Classic Biofuels:  Biofuels - Introduction to Biofuels .pdf 

Although the carbon in biofuels originates in the atmosphere, there is controversy regarding the actual carbon balance for North American biofuels due to the need for fertilizers, the transportation of the biomass, and other impacts on the soil and groundwater. This is why we should make full use of biowaste - such as corn stover - before adding biomass such as switchgrass to the biofeedstock pool.

Synthetic carbon-neutral biofuels can be identical (fungible) to conventional ethanol (E85) or methanol (M85) they can be dropped into the fuel distribution and supply infrastructure that we already have and power internal combustion engines that we already use.  Syngas biofuels can be up-converted to diesel and jet fuel; other synthetic electrochemical fuels are also a possibility. Depending on the source of the electricity, these electrochemical fuels can be completely carbon neutral.

This approach would achieve several things: It would relieve the vehicle manufacturer of the need to make a battery that can tolerate years of heavy use with little or no maintenance, and it would render moot the concerns of battery weight and size, as the synthetic biofuel part of the system is stationary. By moving the capital expense and risk out of the vehicle and centralizing it, one might realize significant improvements in economy of scale and maintainability. It would also render moot the need to have time dedicated to battery charging, as the process that generates the fuel operates continuously and independently of the vehicle.


B  The standard chemistry symbols for the CO2 molecule.



C  The fact that the CO2 in the air is accessible to everyone in the world enables everyone to recycle CO2 into clean synthetic liquid biofuels.

Since only energy and biomass is needed to create fossil-replacement liquid biofuels, this encourages abandoning Climate Changing fossil fuels everywhere forever.





E   Converting gaseous feedstocks of carbon from biomass and hydrogen from water into synthetic carbon-neutral liquid biofuels over catalysts under heat and pressure to replace both fossil oil and fossil natural gas. Coal has already been superseded by nuclear as a source of heat energy.

Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass:

"Principally all carbon and hydrogen atoms from biomass can be used for syngas production if biomass is heated to sufficiently high temperature. Maximum biomass to syngas conversion efficiency is achieved if all carbon is oxidized to CO. As most of biomass materials contain more carbon atoms than oxygen atoms, some oxygen has to be added to gasify all carbon. This can be done by addition of oxygen, air, steam or CO2."  - Milan Hrabovsky, Institute of Plasma Physics - Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass .pdf

[We are talking about blowing very hot biomass vapors thru an electric arc as powerful as lightning having temperatures over 10,000F to break molecules down into their constituent atoms for reassembly into carbon monoxide synthesis gas molecules (syngas). Using nuclear electricity to power this process makes this process economically viable.]
(Click on image to enlarge Image.)


F   Abundant electricity that is cheaper and more reliable than the ephemeral electricity from windmills, solar cells, and magic batteries.
(Click on images to enlarge.)



This chart points out a very inconvenient truth. 
Wind simply isn't replacing fossil fuels, nuclear has far to go, and hydro can't grow much.
The world is still making most of it's electricity from CO2-producing energy sources - coal, gas, or oil.

Over half of the conventional thermal CO2 in the above left chart can be quickly and cheaply eliminated by replacing the plant's fossil fuel boilers with modular molten salt reactor steam generators.  The job is surprisingly small - see the above right chart.  These 1,200 "Supersized" coal burning power plants are only 2% of the world's fossil fuel power plant fleet. And, since some nuclear energies can be 2,000 times cheaper than coal energy, the economics are favorable as well as the plant becoming clean rather than "coal dirty", a much better place to work.

They are relatively new, being built after the anti-nuclear environmentalists convinced second and third world countries to build large coal burning power plants instead of large nuclear power plants. Since they are relatively new, these huge coal power plants will be around a long time.  See "Environmentalism's Nuclear Disaster."

Massive coal power plants that will be around for a long time is exactly what we don't want for fighting Climate Change.

See Taichung (#1) and Big Bend (#258) coal burning power plant suggested upgrades as examples of how this can be done using ThorCon's proposed molten salt reactors to replace just the power plant's coal boilers.



G    Synthetic carbon-neutral biogas that is 'drop-in' identical to fossil's 'natural' gas. This means we can heat our homes without making any changes to our furnaces, city gas utilities, or electricity generating plants that currently use 'natural' gas.
(Note the carbon dioxide molecules returning to the air.)


H  Synthetic carbon-neutral biomethanol to replace gasoline. M85 Biomethanol can be used as a lower-cost-per-mile "drop-in" replacement for gasoline. Hydrogen is an energy-carrier. Note all the hydrogens on that methanol molecule.
(Note the carbon dioxide molecules returning to the air.)

Just as some of our cars are already "Dual Fuel" - Gasoline and E85 Ethanol - tiny changes in our cars costing less than $100 could bring them up to China's and Brazil's "Triple Fuel" standard - i.e., Gasoline, Ethanol (E85), and Methanol (M85).

The methanol used in the green chart below is from fossil feedstock - typically coal or natural gas - and thus adds to Climate Change.

CO2 numbers from using carbon-neutral biofeedstock should be about the same but, being carbon-neutral, this CO2 will not add to Climate Change.


If you want economy, buy methanol.  If you want range, buy gasoline.  If you want neither, buy ethanol.
  The Open Fuel Standard Act of 2013 .pdf