4: Electricity Decarbonization,
Emissions Electricity Power Plant
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Adjustable Emissions Electricity Power Plant
How the industry and the EPA sees it: Limit carbon capture to just enough to squeak under the EPA's limits.
"Advanced Carbon Capture" (below) is the author's fuel and emissions agile hybridization of combined heat and power (CHP) and carbon capture technologies. You can "Dial In" any amount of CO2 emissions you desire.
This approach, where the CHP bottoming cycle shares the HRSG's steam with the combined cycle electricity generating turbine is especially beneficial when using oil, rather than natural gas, as the fossil fuel. Even NEGATIVE CO2 emissions are possible when burning biofuel oil.
A good tutorial paper on carbon capture has been posted on the internet by the WorleyParsons Company: Carbon Capture Overview (3).pdf
(From the Internet) Other recent reports by knowledgeable
experts on Carbon
Capture and Sequestration (CCS):
CCS - MIT - The Cost Of Carbon Capture - David_and_Herzog.pdf (6 pages)
CCS - IEA - Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation - costperf_ccs_powergen.pdf (51 pages)
CCS - Congressional Research Service - Carbon Capture - A Technology Assessment - R41325.pdf (99 pages)
Excerpts from above papers:
"Based on the studies analyzed, there is a consensus that using today’s capture technology would add 1.5-2¢/kWh to the busbar cost of electricity for an IGCC [integrated coal gasification combined cycle] or NGCC [natural gas, combined cycle] power plant. For a PC plant [pulverized coal-fired simple cycle], the incremental cost of electricity would be over 3¢/kWh." - MIT paper, Conclusion.
"For natural gas-fired power generation,
post-combustion CO2 capture is most often analysed and appears the most
attractive near-term option. Average cost and performance projections
include net efficiency penalties of eight percentage points for post-combustion
CO2 capture from natural gas combined cycles. Overnight costs are USD 1
700/kW including CO2 capture, or 82% higher than the reference plant without
capture. LCOE is USD 102/MWh and costs of CO2 avoided are USD 80/tCO2 if a
natural gas combined cycle is used as a reference." - IEA paper, Executive
1. This widely used industrial carbon capture process was patented in 1930 and is called "Postcombustion Carbon Capture". In the sketch below, the jet engine's exhaust is first run through a "Heat Recovery Steam Generator" to recover as much heat as possible, then passed through a CO2 absorption column. A liquid containing an amine solution (MEA or Monoethanolamine) captures the CO2 in the jet exhaust stream and carries it to a heated "Reboiler" which converts the amine solution to a vapor. The vapor is then condensed in the "Amine Stripper" with the CO2 gas escaping from the stripper's top and the condensed liquid amine solution drains to the bottom of the column for reuse.
Advanced Adjustable CO2 Carbon Capture Emissions + 100% to - 90%
(This kind of flexibility enables the operator to maximize profits or minimize emissions within several minutes.)
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