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Chapter 3 Directory:
Advanced Biofuel Energy
(Combustion, Fire)
Biofuel Carbon, Direct Air Carbon Capture, and Hydrogen From Water. Tomorrow's non-nuclear sources of clean heat.

Man is the fire animal.  Fire is our primary survival tool.  Cooking greatly extends the variety and supply of our edible foods.
400,000 years of using fire helped man survive the ice ages.  Fire gave us metal.  Metal gave us the fire-powered modern world.
Today, we stand on the threshold of adding improved carbon-neutral fires to our repertoire of fires.

European energy project knowledge database:   https://setis.ec.europa.eu/energy-research/

Introduction: Video explaining "Carbon-neutral":  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Gb1hDl8iYc
Another Video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEPn4eTqJ7s  

Video showing making vehicle fuel from the CO2 in air:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5SqwSU8ns4 


1      3.1.0    Advanced Biofuel Energy >
  About Advanced Biofuel Energy. http://www.pnnl.gov/news/id=4317
                     The challenge is o
btaining sufficient carbon neutral biofuel feedstock for the world's combustion fuels.
         3.1.1     
Plasma Biomass Gasifier  How trees, garbage, and sewage can be turned by plasma pyrolysis into carbon-neutral CO2 and solids slag.
         3.1.2    
How Fire Works    We use fire all the time in our homes, cars, etc., but few know what they are actually doing when they strike a match or turn an ignition key.

 
        3.1.3     Chemical Realities of Combustion Energy
         3.1.4     Decarbonized fuels that are better, cheaper, and more powerful than fossil.
                    Combustion fuels that will make us forget fossil fuels. Consider carbon-neutral 55+ Cetane dimethyl ether vs. diesel.
                    As long as we are going to synthesize carbon-neutral combustion fuels, let's make them as good as they can get. Chock full of hydrogens.

2     The U.S. Billion-ton Biomass Project  This is our best hope for obtaining the carbon-neutral carbon essential for making carbon-neutral fuels
         3.2.1     The U.S. Billion-ton Biomass Project
         3.2.2     The Billion Ton Per Year Biofuel Economy  1/3 of all the oil the U.S. burns every year.  The biofuel powered, carbon-captured, combined cycle power plant is nuclear's nemesis.

3     Fire
                     Youtube Videos:
                    
The History of Methanol:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQ14OhrLq2k 
                     Could this be the methanol age?  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=75cVPG78eD4 
                     Making Methanol from High Pressure Bio CO2 and High Pressure Hydrogen:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GzjpmmtGBqU
                     Renewable Methanol from Biomass and CO2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m9Kj1u-W3Aw 
                     How it works.
                     How Plasma Torch Pyrolyzation Works:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWAG4SCZo10
                     Alter Plasma (Westinghouse):  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBqx8t-YLrw
                     Alter Overview Video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrYJof510NU    
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPRa31dS0vA 
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ut3I7OIPFR8 
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7gzdFGc3y4 
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kI7s6IRpOHA
                     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=15bVXLrBW2o 

4    A Nuclear Powered Biomass CO2 Liquid-Fuels Economy.
                   Youtube Video: 
         3.4.1     
Nuclear Hydrogen Biomass System - Slides - Dr Charles Forsberg .pdf

         3.4.2     Green Freedom.pdf
         3.4.3     Green Freedom - Martin_AEC_2008_revised.pdf
         3.4.4    
Carbon Capture - EPA Literature Survey - July 10 2015.pdf      Direct Air Capture of CO2 with Chemicals - dac2011.pdf    Reports on Carbon Capture technology studies.
                     MIT Says Removing CO2 from the Air Will Not Be Cost Effective - full.pdf      Carbon_Capture_Beyond_2020_rpt-2016.pdf

         3.4.5     Carbon Dioxide from Seawater - Part I - a544002.pdf      Carbon Dioxide from Seawater - Part II - GetTRDoc.pdf    Most carbon dioxide has been captured by the oceans.

         3.4.6     Getting 34 billion gallons a day of CO2-neutral biomass from just one source: http://www.pnnl.gov/news/release.aspx?id=4317  Turning it into oil:  http://genifuel.com/ 
         3.4.7     Direct Air CO2 Capture
        
3.4.8   Uses for Carbon Positive Captured Carbon, Carbon Neutral Carbon
         3.4.9   
About Advanced Carbon Capture   3 different carbon capture technologies are being examined closely these days.
         3.4.10   
Precombustion Carbon Capture
         3.4.11   
Postcombustion Carbon Capture  or  Flue Carbon Capture
         3.4.12   
Oxyfuel Carbon Capture
         3.4.13   Clean Energy Systems "Oxyrocket"
        
3.4.14   Allam Cycle Oxyfuel sCO2 Carbon Capture    "sCO2" stands for supercritical CO2.  Generally, this denotes liquefied CO2 gas at more than 1,400 psi and 80°F.

5     Algae Production Racetracks
         3.5.1    
Algae Production Racetracks

6     Direct Air Carbon Capture Technologies
                     Youtube Videos:
                  
  How the amine scrubber works:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZNzcMnOtBPE 
                     An excellent slide show on oxyfuel has been posted on the internet by Linde:
  Oxygen Production for Oxyfuel Power Plants-Linde .pdf
                    
Oxygen Production - Air Products Whitepaper .pdf
                                 Non-Electric Advanced Carbon Captured Oil Heat Applications 

         3.6.1    Carbon Engineering, Canada - Liquid potassium hydroxide based system.  Pilot plant in Squamish, British Columbia.
         3.6.2    Climeworks, Zurich, Switzerland - Novel sorbent coupled with a temperature swing to release the captured CO2.
         3.6.3    Global Thermostat, California, USA - DAC technology based on amine sorbents with a temperature swing for regeneration. Pilot plant up and running at SRI, California.
         3.6.4    Infinitree, New York, USA - Humidity swing process for concentrating CO2. Technology is based on the DAC system developed by now-bankrupt Kilimanjaro Energy.
         3.6.5    Center for Negative Emissions at ASU, Arizona, USA - DAC technology based on humidity swing process. An academic group headed by Professor Klaus Lackner.

                    An excellent slide show on oxyfuel has been posted on the internet by Linde:
  Oxygen Production for Oxyfuel Power Plants-Linde .pdf
                   
Oxygen Production - Air Products Whitepaper .pdf
                                 Non-Electric Advanced Carbon Captured Oil Heat Applications 

7     Hydrogen Feedstock Production Technologies
                  Youtube Video:
 
         3.7.1   Hydrogen From Nuclear Fission

Engaging the world's automobile manufacturers to add industrial size fire carbon capture components to their product lines.
Power plant manufacturers think in terms of ten units.  Car manufacturers think in terms of ten thousand units.

8     Captured Carbon Use and Storage Technologies 
 
                 Youtube Video:
                  Pyrolysis: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RHLYzRMmDwE 


The term ‘CO2 re-use" seems to be growing
in favor over "Carbon Capture and Sequestration". It may be a better term to use politically, and it is easier to understand.

For fuels, the basic idea is to take the usual fuel combustion reaction in reverse. We combust a liquid fuel to make energy, CO2 and water.  All reactions are reversible, and to make a synthetic fuel, we take CO2, energy and water.

As well as liquid fuels, we can also use CO2 to make construction aggregate, fertilizer pellets, methanol and chemical compounds. By reacting CO2 with waste, we can potentially solve two environmental problems at once – one is to avoiding CO2 emissions, the other is to avoid putting the waste in landfill. - - - http://www.carboncapturejournal.com/AllMagazine.aspx 

 

A good tutorial paper on conventional carbon capture has been posted on the internet by the WorleyParsons Company:  Carbon Capture Overview (3).pdf

________________________________________________________________

This is the sort of thing nuclear's massive amounts of "cheaper than coal" thermal energy makes practical:

Vancouver Utility To Pilot System For Turning Wastewater Into Fuel.

In a “Nova Next” article on its website, PBS (1/10) reports public water utility Metro Vancouver in British Columbia “plans to pilot a system” for transforming its wastewater into “potentially carbon-neutral fuel and clean, sterile water as practically the only byproducts.” The process was developed by US-based Genifuel Corporation “in collaboration with the US Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).” An “independent assessment” of the system was then “performed by PNNL under the supervision of engineers from technical consulting company Leidos, Inc,” PBS explains.