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Chapter 2 Directory:
Advanced Nuclear Energ
y
The Advanced Nuclear Technologies - Tomorrow's lowest-cost source of non-biofuel heat.

  About Advanced Nuclear Energy Technologies
(Nuclear Technologies Orientation Chart)

IAEA Advanced Reactors Information System database:  https://aris.iaea.org/ 

?. Savannah River Site Small Modular Reactor (SMR) plans: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lOWY20oXX04 
 

Excellent Update Report: "In nuclear poker, who's betting on small reactors?"   http://www.eenews.net/stories/1060051025   

John Fialka, E&E News reporter 

New Folders, Not Integrated Yet: 1. Molten Salt Reactors  2. Pebble Bed Reactors  3. Micro Reactors

1      2.1.0    Advanced Nuclear Energy >      
About Advanced Nuclear Energy. 
        2.1.1    How Fission Works    We use electricity all the time in our lives but few know what they are actually doing when they flip a switch connected to a nuclear powered grid.

        2.1.2    Radiation Realities of Nuclear Energy 
        2.1.3    Nuclear Reactor Regulation: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
        2.1.4    The Sub-seabed Solution for Nuclear Waste


2   About Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Waste
         2.2.1    How Nuclear Fission Works
         Youtube Videos:
         Five Minute Refresher On Understanding Radiation:   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zw0pHT47AAU         Their Web Site:   Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission
         2.2.2    Hormesis: Radiation's Healthy Surprise
         2.2.3    Sub-Seabed Nuclear Waste Solution    The bungled the issue of nuclear waste.  A better idea.  http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/96oct/seabed/seabed.htm  
         2.2.4    Dispose, Rather Than Decommission, Nuclear Reactors                  

3   Advanced Nuclear Reactor Types   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_small_nuclear_reactor_designs
 
       2.3.1    Advanced Nuclear Technologies   Modular 25 to 300 megaWatt(electrical) units that can come in six and twelve-packs. Replacing the world's 30,000 small coal power plants.
        
2.3.2    Comparing Reactor Types            As with different fossil fuels and the engines they power, different reactors and the engines they power are becoming specialized.
         2.3.3    Avoid These Reactors                  Not all advanced nuclear reactors are desirable.  Some are thermal dead-ends that have weapons-grade plutonium as their reason for being..



3a Molten Salt Cooled Reactors       
Naturally stable, energy dense, molten salt fuel/coolant, powerful, 1,300F reactors to replace up to the largest industrial coal fires.

3a1. Introduction video. The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment - Oak Ridge video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tyDbq5HRs0o 

3a2. Introduction video. Medium temperature molten salt cooled fluid reactor for replacing coal in existing and new electricity power plants:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGBkV3ZLTDI 


         2.3a.1    Terrestrial Energy IMSR             Canadian Integral Molten Salt Reactor
         Youtube Videos:  Climate Change: 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lPq7ugLFoDE 
                                     Liquid Nuclear Fuel: 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LERLuH7kWVs
                                     Let's Get Real (48m): 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f4OkFPZuxuQ
        
Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR) - By Dr. David LeBlanc, Terrestrial Energy Co., Canada,   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OgTgV3Kq49U
         IMSR Plant Fly-by (33 seconds)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4bFe8Eqrjio    IMSR Life Cycle (52 seconds)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PCIbVAmTC7s 
         IMSR Animation (2:34 minutes) showing storage of spent reactor cartridges to exceed the long investment return life of a coal plant  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L17bCFpMZ5Q

         Simon Irish on the "Value of Molten Salt Design in Small Modular Reactor Innovation":  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfsl2hoLlC4
         This lecture describes in detail the benefits thorium can bring to the nuclear energy world. (Sorensen)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODea3YaTmKw
         Proposed molten salt cooled nuclear Stirling air turbine baseload + peaking project. (Forsberg)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zD0m_ci-oo&feature=player_embedded#t=0
 

         2.3a.2    ThorCon                                    515 megaWatt(e) "If it isn't cheaper than coal, don't bother" - Thorcon.
         Youtube Video:
ThorCon - A Molten Salt Reactor System That Can Be Built Now. (Lars Jorgensen)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VfsOYzOpYRw
 
         2.3a.3    Moltex                                      http://www.moltexenergy.com/  150 mW(e) 570C, 1,060F
         2.3a.4    Future
         2.3a.5    Future  

         Molten Salt Reactor Technology Specific Applications (TSA):  TSAs are things you can do with only one type of advanced reactor due to temperature or power constraints.
         2.3a.TSA1   
Taichung: Converting Coal To Nuclear    Taichung, Taiwan, is the world's largest source of CO2.  Here is a way to convert it to "cheaper than coal" nuclear.
         2.3a.TSA2    All Existing Coal Electricity Plants
         2.3a.TSA3    Coal Fires for Industrial Heating

3b Helium Gas Cooled Reactors - (Both Slow and Fast Gas Cooled Very High Temperature Reactors) Less powerful, very hot, up to 1,700F, reactors.

3b1. Introduction video.  High temperature helium gas cooled pebble bed nuclear reactor for making carbon-neutral biofuels: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JRCIwSV7NMk

3b2. Introduction video. Energy Multiplier Module for making 250 megaWatt(e) electricity without a big power plant:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3kOeFHNpqV0 

         2.3b.1    High Temperature Reactors    Naturally stable ceramic fuels heating helium gas to replace up to the hottest, cleanest, industrial natural gas fires.
        
2.3b.2    HTR-PM                               Chinese slow-neutron pebble bed reactor.  40 are being built for the Rongcheng electricity generation complex.
        
2.3b.3    Areva Antares                       French slow-neutron prismatic reactor.
        
2.3b.4    EM2 Reactor                        http://www.ga.com/energy-multiplier-module  General Atomics' helium cooled 240 mW(e) fast-neutron prismatic reactor power plant.
         2.3b.5    ALLEGRO Reactor                http://www.vuje.sk/en/   Slovakia's 850C, 1,562F, helium cooled 2,400 mW(t), 800 mW(e), fast-neutron pebble/prism reactor for E.U. projects.
        
Youtube Video:          About Allegro:  http://www.vuje.sk/en/project-allegro/projekt-allegro    ("Allegro" means fast - but not too fast - in music.)

 
(Sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, at 900F, and having a long record of fires in almost all of their different prototypes, are not considered hot enough or safe enough to be included.)

         High Temperature Reactor Technology Specific Applications (TSA):  TSAs are things you can do with only one type of advanced reactor due to temperature or power constraints.
         2.3b.TSA1    About Direct Air CO2 Removal      Skyscrubbers to "mine the sky" for CO2 for Fire from biofuels
         2.3b.TSA2    
Nuclear Powered Skyscrubber      Using nuclear energy to power direct air capture of CO2.  A High Efficiency Nuclear CHP Combined electricity and heat Skyscrubber
        
2.3b.TSA3    About Nuclear Combined Heat and Power    (NCHP)   Europe's COGEN philosophyHigher Efficiency Bottoming Cycles (steam and desalination).
         2.3b.TSA4    Nuclear Powered Hydrogen Generator To Make Clean Vehicle Fuels
         Youtube Video:


3c Micro-Reactors (Sub-25 mW(e))
  Sub-25 megaWatt(electrical) to replace diesel and small gas turbines for combined heat and power (CHP) cogeneration applications. 

         2.3c.1    Micro-Nuclear Reactors       
        
2.3c.2    Gen4                                    http://www.gen4energy.com/    United States company development based upon Soviet-era lead-cooled submarine reactors.
        
2.3c.3    Urenco                                 https://www.u-battery.com/    United Kingdom project. Dual 10 mW(t), 4 mW(e), 710C, prismatic, helium primary, nitrogen secondary
        
2.3c.4    LeadCold                              http://www.leadcold.com/  Swedish - Canadian  550C Fast-neutron lead cooled 10 to 30 year run between refuelings
         2.3c.5   
StarCore Nuclear                   http://starcorenuclear.ca/#!/welcome/  Dual 10mW(e) load-following units + 10mW(t) heat - HTGR Truncated Octahedron prisms

        
Youtube Video:
 

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