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1, Harvesting Climate-Changing CO2 From The Air    2. CO2 Disposal Wells    3. Beautiful Unlimited Nuclear Electricity    4. Clean Combustion Fuels

_____________________________________________     2. CO2 Disposal Wells         Fossil Fuel's Future     Green Hydrogen          _________________________________

Putting The CO2 Genie Back In The Bottle: The Class VI CO2 Disposal Well
 increasing safety by using CarbFix, an additive to convert liquefied captured CO2 into Limestone
https://www.carbfix.com/
 

https://www.carbfix.com/  About converting disposal liquid carbon dioxide into solid limestone so it won't leak out of the disposal well and suffocate.                                                                  

Class-VI-CO2-Injection-Well-Permit-Final.pdf

About Captured Carbon's Underground CO
2 Storage Vault Locations 
U.S. and Global Deep Underground BECCS Negative CO2 Storage Zones

Locating
Direct Air CO2 Capture Farms Directly Over CO2 DISPOSAL WELLS Speeds Up Decarbonization and Drives Down Cost
 

CCS Networks In The Circular Carbon Economy - Linking Emissions Sources To Geologic Storage Sinks  (A September, 2021, Global CCS Institute pdf)

https://blog.sintef.com/sintefenergy/ccs/the-liability-regime-for-co2-shipping/

https://www.epa.gov/uic/class-vi-wells-used-geologic-sequestration-co2

Class IV Shallow Hazardous and Radioactive Injection Wells


The world will need hundreds of Climate Change CO2 Capture Farms and Class VI CO2 Disposal Wells.

The United States' Carbon Capture and Storage Situation:
"The United States has the technological potential to offset roughly only a decade’s worth of its current CO2 emissions through biological sequestration (i.e., planting trees, etc.,) but a few hundred years’ worth of emissions through carbon dioxide capture and sequestration." - from Congressional Budget Office "The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States, 2007" - Summary, page 2.


See CarbFix: CO2 Locked in the ground forever. Watch:
 
  https://www.carbfix.com/    (Skip the ad someone inserted in front of the video.)
If water is added to the liquid CO2 as it is pumped into the ground, the CO2 will turn into limestone [carbonate] after a few years. This locks the CO2 underground forever.

 

 

 

Most CO2 Disposal Wells should be co-located on the same site as their CO2 capturing equipment.

            
                                                  Maps Showing various UNDERGROUND CARBON CAPTURE STORAGE STRATA LOCATIONS                         

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Improve Class VI permitting on private lands

The development of any carbon removal project incorporating the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (without the production of oil or gas) in the United States requires the issuance of a Class VI UIC (Underground Injection Control) permit from EPA. The authority to regulate UIC wells on private lands is granted to EPA through the Safe Drinking Water Act; however, the current review process for obtaining a permit is lengthy, cumbersome, and poorly understood by project developers. In many cases, obtaining a Class VI UIC permit has been and will continue to be a primary bottleneck and uncertainty for near-term DAC and BECCS projects. Currently, EPA has only issued two Class VI permits.41 Notably, the permitting process for Class II UIC wells, which cover the injection of fluids associated with oil and gas production, including carbon dioxide, has effectively issued nearly 200,000 wells and could serve as an excellent reference for improvements to the Class VI permitting process.

Due to the lengthy process of obtaining a Class VI permit at the federal level, several state governments have begun the process of applying for Class VI primacy in order to permit geologic storage wells within their jurisdictions through state review. This application and review process is also lengthy and complex, and only North Dakota and Wyoming have currently received approval from EPA to issue Class VI permits. Presently, EPA is insufficiently staffed, funded, and resourced to meet the demand for Class VI UIC permits.42 Prioritize the review of Class VI UIC well applications to allow potential carbon storage projects to move forward. Because of the additional requirements associated with Class VI UIC permits (as opposed to Class II UIC permits), EPA should allocate additional staff and funding to support the accelerated review of Class VI UIC applications to avoid inhibiting the development of carbon removal projects. The administration should work with Congress to ensure that EPA funding is sufficient to meet these goals.

41. Congressional Research Service. (2020). Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Federal Role and Issues for Congress (CRS Report No. R46192). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R46192 

42. Geraci, M., Ali, S. J., Romolt, C. & Rossman, R. (2017). The Environmental Risks and Oversight of Enhanced Oil Recovery in the United States. Clean Water Action and Clean Water Fund. https://www.cleanwater.org/   

- - - from Carbon180 Transition Book 'Priorities for Administrative Action on Carbon Removal in 2021+https://carbon180.org/reports 

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(Above.) This is where most Climate Changing CO2 comes from - Wood, Coal, Oil, Natural Gas, etc.
Lighting the fire provides the energy needed to get the reactants to break apart, the fire keeps reactions going and the excess heat produced is your benefit.
Zero is the the starting point, BLUE means Reactants [fuel] taking up heat energy [+], RED means Products [exhaust emissions] giving off heat energy [-].
The heat units (kilo joules, or kj) are absorbed (+) and liberated (-) by the breaking and forming of the molecular bonds.
 

 

(Above) A Somewhat More Complex Diagram Showing Setting Methane (Natural Gas) On Fire.
For most fires, you can't make heat without making CO2.

 

 

(Above) An old IPCC Chart edited by the web site author to show the addition of Tar Sands and Shale Oil, The Nuclear fuel Thorium,
and bit of the massive amount of recoverable Uranium dissolved in Sea Water.

 

 

 

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Direct Air CO2 Capturing (DAC) Pebble Farms have the potential to quickly restore the world to it's original 280 ppm CO2 level.
It is possible for Planet Earth to have hundreds of small Direct Air CO2 Capture farms all over the world that, along with decarbonization, could completely halt Climate Change.  (Click to Enlarge.)

Climate-Changing CO2 can be captured from the air (see below), liquefied, mixed with 'CarbFix', then pumped into permanent underground storage strata all over the world to become limestone.

"To meet our climate goals, 10 billion metric tons (referred to as tonnes from herein) per year (GtCO2yr−1 ) must be removed globally by 2050. After 2050 and thereafter, 20 GtCO2 yr−1 must be removed [2]. These reductions do not include emissions avoided by decarbonization, rather CO2 directly removed from the atmosphere." - Noah McQueen, "A review of direct air capture (DAC): scaling up commercial technologies and innovating for the future". 16 April 2021.

The above is Climate Change mitigation orthodoxy. What follows is what might be possible if the IPCC followed a path of maintaining the climate's health that resembled what the medical world does for human health - isolation and containment.

What is being proposed below are sewage-like CO2 treatment plants for the air for removing and isolating the excessive amounts of the toxic air contaminant carbon dioxide in the air. Carbon dioxide emitted into the air from anywhere on Earth wafts around the planet, so the gas can be captured and disposed of wherever it’s convenient. Wind-circulated gas diffusion will quickly sweep excess amounts of CO2 created anywhere in the world's air to any location on the surface of the earth that is causing reduced diffused carbon dioxide gas pressure by removing local carbon dioxide from the air - i.e., a virtual CO2 'funnel'.  U.S. 'Class VI' CO2 disposal wells (or equals) at that location, in combination with the liquefied CO2 additive "CarbFix", will safely turn this CO2 that has been injected deep into the earth into limestone. This will lock the air's captured CO2 very deep underground forever.

Roughly speaking, the above 12 billion tons of available magnesite limits the world to extracting 12 billion tons or so of Non-Biomass carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere each year.
Possibly a more frequent harvesting interval is possible, say, 3 times per year to yield 36 billion tons of CO2 per year?
Also, since magnesite deposits and CO2 disposal strata are spread around the world in many different countries in varying amounts, breaking apart the Direct Air CO2 Capture industry to reflect these circumstances might prove more efficient.
Most importantly, once the task of reversing Climate Change has been achieved, the world will still face the task of also removing that invisible cloud of about 500 billion tons of CO2 still hanging over us before Planet Earth becomes cool again.

https://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/critical-metals-investing/magnesium-investing/top-magnesite-producing-countries/ 

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