1. Introduction
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1. Introduction

Welcome to Energy's Final Frontier: Clean Energy
Using Energy + Hydrogen + Biomass to Replace Fossil Fuels with Clean Renewable Biofuels

The original heat engine, the 1712 Newcomen steam engine, mankind's first commercially practical replacement for the dispatchable energy of the horse.
(And the beginning of Climate Change.)

The Allam Cycle Power Plant Gives Fossil Fuels A Good Future Again.


How the world's oil industry can get us to zero fossil fuel emissions by mid-century
The Allam Cycle changes the Climate Change challenge for the better.  Everyone has to update their Climate Change thinking.

Consuming the world's remaining fossil fuels by recycling the CO2 we've already put in the air to make safe biofuels is the key to stopping Climate Change forever.
The Allam Cycle is very new technology and, as of now, only running in 1/10th size pilot plant form. But, to this old engineer, who took a class in thermodynamics in the 1960s, it looks to be a rational professional design giving much thought to the economics of energy.

HOW?:  Electrify everything possible with Allam fossil fuel electricity. Stop burning biomass to make electricity. Use all biomass to replace as much oil and natural gas fuels as possible with equivalent net-zero CO2 biosynfuels.
  The world's oil industry has the ability to efficiently produce net-zero CO2 liquid combustion fuels and gases. They have the Science, Technology, Equipment, Infrastructure, Resources, and Motivated People. 

STEP #1: Stopping Climate Change's relentless 100 million-ton-per-day CO2 growth by phasing out all fossil fuel open-air burning and instead manufacture Waste-to-Energy Net-zero CO2 Fuels that can be open-air burned.  

STEP #2: Once we stop adding fossil fuel CO2 to the air, then we can begin to suck the excess CO2 back out of the air to restore our climate to near-normal using direct air CO2 capturing machines such as Skyscrubber 
or by drawing CO2 from the air by diverting some of the biomass' syngas energy to the Allam power plant's sequestration well (BECCS). Others are thinking along these lines but perhaps using air conditioners instead. 


Above and Below: A Carbon-captured Biomass Waste-to-Energy Clean Fuel Factory To Provide Both Big Electricity And Net-zero CO2 Fuels

Equipment Pages  >  1 Introduction  2 Engineering  3 Allam CCS Power Plant  4 Hydrogen Generator 5 Biomass Preparation  6 Plasma Torch Gasifier  7 GTL Refinery  8 Fuels Description

Recycling air's CO2 carbon into cheap, clean fuels - using standard industrial equipment to assemble GTL fuel molecules [ GTL ] from gasified biomass waste to make CO2-neutral fuels.
The big win is that we change only the fuels, not everything in the world that uses fuels.  Much quicker and cheaper.  For the average person we can keep our current lifestyles, we won't have to buy range-limited electric cars, and we can keep air travel.
With a fuel supply system like the above, cars could easily be biogasoline, E80, M70, plug-in hybrids. One kilogram of hydrogen contains as much energy as about three liters of diesel.  


About CO2 Sequestration and Net-zero CO2 Emissions Renewable Clean Fuel Factories

The United States has the technological potential to offset roughly only a decade’s worth of its current CO2 emissions through biological sequestration (i.e., planting trees, etc.,) but a few hundred years’ worth of emissions through carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. - Congressional Budget Office "The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States, 2007" - Summary, page 2.

Storing CO2 underground can have geological consequences and is only legally done under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies. 
Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership: 

We still have several hundred years of fossil fuels remaining. A few hundred years should buy enough time to perfect nuclear energy.   

Maps Showing various U.S. UNDERGROUND CARBON CAPTURE STORAGE STRATA LOCATIONS           Energy + Hydrogen + Biomass System - (pdf Slide Show) - Dr Charles W. Forsberg

The end-user would continue to use the same or similar fires and other "Drop-In" clean energies supplied through existing distribution networks.

The world may need about 10,000 Renewable Fuel Factories to head off the worst of Climate Change.  Like cars, airplanes, and ships, Fuel Factories would be modular in design similar to today's electricity power plants. Ten or even 20 fuel factory modules could be located at a single large fuel factory. Such modularity is an economic advantage in several ways. For example, you can run different products on different modules at the same time, varying the numbers of modules making the same product to satisfy current market needs. The cost, quality, and reliability of mass-produced modules of anything is hard to beat. 

There are almost unlimited opportunities for completely new greenfield Fuel Factories now that prime underground strata for CCS CO2 sequestration locations have been identified enabling cheap straight-down CO2 disposal via disposal wells located on site property. Since potable water is one of the Allam Cycle's exhaust products, fuel factories could be located virtually anywhere there is a CO2 disposal strata and sufficient biomass. This means there is no need for a costly national CO2 disposal grid that may take 20 to 40 years and billions of dollars to complete due to obstruction by environmentalists.
Storing CO2 underground improperly can be a hazardous activity and is only to be done under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies.



  There is far more oil available than most realize - and, with the Allam Cycle, we could be using it for hundreds of years.  

Vehicle and heating fuels cannot be rendered effectively ZERO CO2 by using Skyscrubbers to remove and sequester their equivalent CO2 emissions from the air. 

An impossible task as long as fresh CO2 continues to be added to the air.

Oil is a very convenient combustion fuel that individuals cannot be asked to give up. 

As can be seen in the graphic at right, there are massive amounts of oil remaining and available at reasonable prices.   How enhanced oil recovery (EOR) works.

In the long run, we will always be recapturing CO2 made by oil and natural gas.    Vehicle Fuels

WHAT CAN BE DONE IMMEDIATELY: Pass the "Open Fuel Standard" law to begin the move to LOW CO2 vehicle fuels (M70 methanol and E85 ethanol) and ZERO CO2 vehicle fuels (net-zero biosynthetic liquid fuels).   China and Brazil already have open fuel vehicles.

Completely synthetic combustion fuels made from CO2 removed from the air by biomass and Skyscrubbers are naturally carbon-neutral.

Removing more than 100% of combustion's CO2 from the air will eventually return Planet Earth's climate to where it was at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

CO2 removal is unavoidable since the over 550 billion ton of old Climate-Changing CO2 backlog will remain in the air for thousands of years.




The "Energy + Hydrogen + Biomass Fuel Cycle"


The Allam Thermodynamic Cycle Changes Everything Climate Change


What does this have to do with Climate Change?

Climate Change is the biggest natural challenge man has encountered since agriculture. Like agriculture, Climate Change will eventually change everything.

Climate Change is occurring because the fuel feedstock the world’s energy industry is using – coal, oil, and natural gas - is wrong. We are adding 100 million tons of carbon to the air every day, resulting in an excess of over 500 billion tons. The carbon in the wrong fuel – fossil fuel - comes from the ground and, as it is being burned, is dumped permanently into the air rather than being placed back into the ground as it should be. Since this underground carbon came from life 150 million years ago - the time of dinosaurs - it is as alien to today's life (us) as if it came from a different planet.

Carbon in the air creates a greenhouse effect that causes Global Warming by reducing the amount of excess heat Planet Earth can return to the cold of black space at night to maintain its normal temperature. Somewhat like a thicker blanket.

Carbon in the air is one of Planet Earth’s major thermostats. In the diagram below, you can see that the amount of carbon in the air must stay the same for Planet Earth’s warmth to stay the same.


Carbon cannot be eliminated from the combustion (fire) process because it releases most of the heat that makes fire happen. Fire has enabled humans to survive two ice ages and has always been his most important survival tool.

Up until the industrial age - about 1800 - fire has always come from wood. Plants take carbon from the air to make its wood. When the wood is burned, the carbon is returned to the air and is used once again to naturally control Planet Earth’s average temperature. When fossil fuel from the ground is burned and its carbon is dumped into the air, the CO2 level goes up, causing global warming.

This website describes how we can return Planet Earth to a "Wood Heat Cycle" - The Energy + Hydrogen + Biomass Liquid Fuel Cycle - to end the 100 million tons of the wrong carbon we are adding to air each day while still having the use of the powerful liquid fuels - gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating gas - that enable us to live to a comparatively old age.


Using the United States as an example - it has lots of easy-to-access data.

United States oil consumption is about 20 million barrels per day,

United States natural gas consumption is about 13 million barrels equivalent of oil energy (BOE) per day.

(Frequently, the "Barrel of Oil Equivalent" (BOE) is used to compare energies of different fuels.

Typically 5,800 cubic feet of natural gas or 58 CCF are equivalent to one BOE.)

So the U.S. renewable feedstock pool would have to support the manufacture of 33 million 275 pound BOE per day (4,537,500 tons per day, 1,656,187,500 tons per year) of non-fossil liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels.

At 1,000 tons per day per EHB facility, that would be about 4,500 EHB facilities in the United States alone.
There are 4,177 Wal-Mart's - 3,275 of them Wal-Mart Supercenters - in the United States alone.


(Click to enlarge) (pdf)
2016 BILLION-TON REPORT [of U.S. Biomass]




At the end of 2017, the United States had about 1,084,783 MW—or 1.1 billion kilowatts (kW)—of total utility-scale electricity generating capacity and about 16 million kW of small-scale distributed solar photovoltaic electricity generating capacity.

3,000 500 mW EHB facilities would be able to provide 1,500,000 MW or 1.5 billion kilowatts (kW) of electricity.

According to Sourcewatch, ( )  600 coal power plants are still in operation.

As of December 31, 2017, there were about 8,652 power plants in the United States that have operational generators with a combined nameplate electricity generation capacity of at least 1 megawatt (MW). [One megaWatt is damn small. You can do that with a millpond hydro.]



When you innovate for consumer markets, you develop a new product and put it out there to see whether it sells. When you innovate for a supply chain, you find out what problem needs to be solved and you provide a solution. Energy is a supply chain; successful energy innovation needs to solve problems." - E J Moniz.

The problem is fossil carbon in all combustion fuels.  The solution is to make all combustion fuels from carbon-neutral feedstock. Energy + Hydrogen + Biomass facilities are a potentially successful energy innovation. - JP Holm.


This website's "Energy Supply Chain" idea draws its fundamental concepts from two different, but complementary, source documents:

Dr. Charles Forsberg's "Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System" (Oak Ridge National Laboratory - U.S. DOE) and
Dr. George A. Olah's "Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy".

The Fuel Factory idea's Bottom Line: Use Dr. Forsberg's Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System to manufacture
Dr. Olah's Carbon-Neutral Biofuels to replace all commonly used fossil combustion fuels.

1. Dr. Charles Forsberg's "The Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System."

In 2007, Dr. Forsberg, a chemist and nuclear scientist from MIT and Oak Ridge Laboratories, prepared a slide show and academic paper to present a related concept to the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers .

Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Slides - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf    Quick slide show overview.
 Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Paper - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf   


Meeting U.S. Liquid Transport Fuel Needs with a Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System

Charles Forsberg

Dr. Forsberg's view: "The two major energy challenges for the United States are (1) replacing crude oil in our transportation system and (2) eliminating greenhouse gas emissions.

A strategy is proposed to meet the total liquid-fuel transport energy needs within 30 years by producing greenhouse-neutral liquid fuels using biomass as the feedstock and nuclear energy to provide the heat, electricity, and hydrogen required for operation of the biomass-to-fuels production facilities.

Biomass is produced from sunlight, atmospheric carbon dioxide, and water. Consequently, using liquid fuels from biomass has no net impacts on carbon dioxide levels because the carbon dioxide is being recycled to the atmosphere when the fuel is burnt. The U.S. could harvest about 1.3 billion tons of biomass per year without major impacts on food, fiber, or lumber costs.

The energy content of this biomass is about equal to 10 million barrels of diesel fuel per day; however, the actual net liquid-fuels production would be less than half of this amount after accounting for energy to process the biomass into liquid fuel. If nuclear energy is used to provide the energy in the form of heat, electricity, and hydrogen to support biomass growth and conversion to liquid fuels, the equivalent of over 12 million barrels of greenhouse-neutral diesel fuel per day can be produced. The combination of biomass and nuclear energy may ultimately meet the total U.S. transport fuel needs."
 - (Copy of text on slide 33, above, by Dr. Charles W. Forsberg.)
Conclusion: There is sufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid-fuel needs if the energy and hydrogen inputs for biomass-to-fuel processing plants are provided by advanced nuclear energy.  



2. In 2006, Nobel Prize winning energy chemist, Dr. George A. Olah, published his influential book: "Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy."
(New edition coming out in July, 2018) 

Dr. Olah and his co-authors explored the different fuels that could be made from captured carbon dioxide; how they would be made, their advantages, shortcomings, and potential problems.      

Beyond Oil and Gas - Literature Seminar - Lit_T_Matsumoto_B4.pdf    A Japanese slide show presenting a quick overview of Dr. Olah's book.

Beyond Oil and Gas - Methanol Synthesis - Summary by George Olah.pdf    Dr. Olah's comments on Methanol Synthesis.

Beyond Oil and Gas - The Methanol Economy - Slide Presentation - R-Prakash-USC-May2014.pdf    A more detailed presentation.


Dr. Olah's view: Liquid hydrocarbons are a cheaper, safer, and more energy-dense way to store, handle, and use energy than batteries or gaseous fuels such as hydrogen. 
Methanol can be a carbon-neutral lowest common denominator liquid combustion fuel for making most of the other liquid and gaseous fuels along with many other substances.


 Another top chemist's opinion                                                                       Comparing energy densities.                 


A few of the images used in this website used to quickly communicate energy's complex technical concepts. (Click to enlarge.)

                                < "Recycled Fire", this website's logo.

   The key is to use carbon-captured fossil energy lavishly to solve Climate Change energy problems.      

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Fast-tracking  Mass-produced Biofeedstock Renewable Fuel Substitutes for Oil and Natural Gas By 2030
Using up the last of our fossil fuels in clean carbon-captured power plants to manufacture environmentally safe liquid biofuels like biogasoline, biodiesel, biojet fuel, heating biogas.
 How do we begin converting unneeded coal power plants into s and is this a chance for the coal power plant owners and workers to get rich if they do it?

A classic Fuel Factory's basic components.

We need about 10,000 Fuel Factories immediately to head off the worst of Climate Change.  We have a head start on establishing Fuel Factories because of the large number of established oil refinery sites.  Modular in design not unlike today's combined cycle power plants, (there is one with seven turbine modules not 15 miles from where I'm writing this), ten or even 20 modules could be located at a single large oil refinery. Such modularity is an economic advantage in quit a few ways. 

In addition, there will be opportunities for completely new greenfield Fuel Factories now that prime underground strata for CO2 disposal have been identified enabling straight-down CO2 disposal via disposal wells located on site property.

Many of the world's coal power plants happen to be already located directly above CO2 disposal strata. For example, in Michigan, perhaps a dozen unneeded Michigan coal power plant sites are located directly above some of the best and safest CO2 disposal geologic strata in the world. All that is needed to sequester the captured CO2 from these plants is to drill a CO2 disposal well straight down on plant property as many miles as you like. Similar strata can be found elsewhere. Nothing could be quicker and cheaper. Many regions of the world have similar favorable geologic strata for CO2 sequestration near population centers.

The most practical size of Fuel Factories are small to medium sized suburban and rural plants equipped with one or two 50 to 200 megaWatt coal-fired generating units. Closer to biomass sources, room for the plant to grow.

Switching to a new combined cycle natural gas turbine plant could give an unneeded coal power plant site a whole new lease on life. Combined cycle power plants are characterized by high reliability, high heat flexibility, high automation and favorable environmental statistics. They emit only 330 kgCO2/mWh with net efficiency of about 60% (a conventional coal-fired power plant emits 860 kgCO2/mWh at 45% net efficiency) [Kotowicz]. If a carbon capture unit can capture 90% of 330 kgCO2/mWh, that's about 33 gCO2/kWh produced (ignoring life-cycle CO2) - that's getting into wind turbine territory. [Wind energy's life cycle CO2 nets around 11 grams of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated, according to Garvin A. Heath, a senior scientist at NREL.] Combined cycle power plants are available quickly anywhere globally from a large number of top-reputation suppliers such as Siemens, GE, Hitachi, etc.

Depending upon local environmental and energy market conditions, as economic opportunities emerge, could take as long as a decade:

    1. Prerequisites: An oil refinery with adequate adjacent greenfield land to support the construction of multiple Fuel Factory modules. This might make government support funds necessary.
    2. Now:
    3. Later: Adding stand-alone entire site post-combustion carbon capture equipment to minimize all plant CO2 emissions. If designed for it, a post-combustion carbon capture system can handle emissions from an assortment of simultaneous of fires.
    4. Later: Adding plasma biomass gasification and gas-to-liquids (GTL) synthesis refinery equipment to manufacture carbon-neutral combustion fuels to replace fossil fuels.

Engineering the first Fuel Factory will be the most difficult. Your biggest mistakes are often made on the first day. A project team consisting of perhaps 2 P.E. project managers, 5 engineers, 5 designers, and 5 clerical working for several years will be needed.  In addition, several experts for each piece of equipment - perhaps customer engineering specialists from the equipment vendors - will be needed to see that the equipment meshes both physically and operationally. Unlikely this paper work can be done in less than two years after a capital-grade estimate has been funded with another year of so for construction and de-bugging. Beginnings are usually humble. I've seen large residential subdivisions begun with someone drawing with a t-square and adjustable triangle on paper taped to a raw door lying on two sawhorses.

Visiting the old coal power plant. Somewhere, the folks there have stashed a set of "as-built" drawings. Get them. Somewhere there is a retired "head of maintenance". Establish the best possible rapport with this person who probably knows the most about the plant and where the sewers, water mains, electrical conduits, etc., are really buried and what they really contain. At the very least, a modest "on-call" consulting contract is in order. This person can be the best friend the new project's field construction engineer ever had. Go by the NSPE contract and insurance guidelines.

1. Carbon-neutral waste-to-energy feedstock. According to AlterNRG ( ) combined global waste energy is the equivalent of 239 million bbls/day of liquid fuels if the waste's energy is not used to make the fuels. (The world is currently pumping about 92 million bbls/day of oil.) There is a great temptation to burn biomass feedstock to manufacture liquid fuels as is advocated in the BECCS electric energy scenario. This approach overlooks the vastly greater value of carbon-neutral liquid and gaseous combustion fuels for the world's population in general. For the near-term, we still have massive amounts of carbon-captured fossil natural gas and oil energy to make electricity and heat to use to manufacture carbon-neutral liquid fuels. In the very distant future, we will have a variety of small, better, safer, nuclear fission reactors that, using the proven uranium resources obtainable from seawater, we will be able to manufacture Climate-safe carbon-neutral fuels forever.

2. Power Plants will need to be 2 to 4 times as powerful to supply twice the original electricity load along with the additional electricity and process heat for powering the manufacture of hydrogen gas, a post-combustion carbon-capture facility, a plasma gasifier, and a small gas-to-liquids fuel refinery. 

We will have to begin by powering the early fuel factories with carbon-captured natural gas turbinesGas turbines have been in mass production since about 1940 as jet airplane engines. Every day, about one million ordinary people trust jet airplanes with their lives.  Either of two gas turbine configurations - conventional carbon-captured natural gas - or, in some parts of the world, oil powered hybrid CO2 - are able to do the job - albeit with a small amount of CO2 emissions. Either of them will prove to have dirt-cheap initial cost compared to Small Modular Nuclear Reactor (SMRs) facilities. (In the case of turbines, the term "gas" refers to the working fluid of the machine, not its fuel, as a way to differentiate gas turbines from "steam" turbines.)

Standard Turbine/Generator modules equipped with duct heated Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG) are available in a wide variety of sizes for immediate delivery. There are at least 10 different world-class manufacturers who have already made tens of thousands of gas turbines for the world's electricity and aircraft industries. These units are typically mounted on a standard outdoor concrete pad that can be installed in several months by local equipment contractors working from standard pad designs. The jet engine's HRSG will need to have both a conventional steam generator and a solar salt heater to provide the 1,600F heat needed to thermochemically manufacture the hydrogen gas that is needed to make carbon-neutral gas-to-liquids (GTL) combustion fuels like gasoline and methanol.

Some water will be necessary to cool the natural gas turbine's exhaust in a CO2 capture column pre-cooler after it leaves the exhaust heat scavenger. The amine chemicals used by the post combustion carbon capture system cannot capture CO2 if they are heated by the jet engine's exhaust gasses. This would also be true if a Wärtsilä-type power plant diesel engine were used instead of aeroderivative jet engines in a smaller oil-powered Fuel Factory.

Today, the transportation sector accounts for about 20 percent of global energy usage; however, as demand for EVs surges - more than half of all vehicle sales will be electric by 2040, according to the Bloomberg New Energy Finance 2017 report - the sector will require another 1,800 TerraWatt-hour (TWh) of electricity, and that's just a snapshot into one high-growth aspect of the electricity market. It's important that if we error on the size and number of the jet turbine/electricity generators to power the Fuel Factories, it be on the side of too big.

The oil and gas industry should jump for joy at the prospect of adding 15,000 500 megaWatt carbon-captured natural gas or oil power plants to their customer base and running their reserves to zero instead of their suffering the same "Leave It In The Ground" fate as their coal buddies.  Actually, they end up eating coal's lunch.   (A million tons of LNG produces about 4 terawatt-hours in a modern electricity plant. - Rod Adams, )

3. Carbon-capture systems for both gas and oil burning turbines can be added later if carbon capture is not available or mandated at the time of the turbine's installation. Remember to provide the required space for a carbon-capture facility when doing the initial equipment layouts - perhaps 4 to 6 acres. A facility such as this will have multiple fire-heated chemical processes so the carbon capture equipment will have to be up-sized to accommodate them as well as the basic turbine powered electricity and heat generating system. Carbon capture equipment could be supplied by one of the more than 20 different global chemical process engineering & construction companies. Some E&C companies have been designing and building industrial-scale carbon capture facilities for various fuel and chemical processes since the mid-1930s.

4. Plasma gasifiers are engineered and built by Alter NRG Corp. Westinghouse Plasma Division and other companies and 15,000 could be mass-produced quickly by highly automated shipyards in Korea and China on the same equipment used to build small ocean-going fishing vessels. The consumable plasma torches are currently being manufactured by Alter (and others) and are currently being used in multiple global facilities as Metropolitan Solid Waste Syngas Generators supplying Syngas to Clean Electricity gas turbine generator power plants.
Check out the United Kingdom's two 1,000 Ton-Per-Day (TPD) Metropolitan Solid Waste (city garbage) MSW Syngas gasifiers in the 2015 Tees Valley Units 1 and 2 project.  (also Plasma Gasifiers)

5. Small Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuel refineries have already been engineered and are currently being offered to the energy industry by Shell (and others) for fuel manufacture using natural gas feedstock. Over the last several years many different catalytic GTL processes also using Syngas feedstock have also been engineered and patented. Watch Shell's  video to the end to see what Shell has come up with.
Study: gasoline is more important than healthcare for Americans  

The design of this Fuel Factory may embody a few unique features: 
1. Adding Fuel Factories to existing oil refinery sites rather than "Green fielding", thus assuring a worldwide excess of potential inexpensive suitable site locations.
2. Using our remaining fossil fuel to make carbon-neutral fuel to power the manufacture of renewable liquid fuels.
3. Exhaust gas recirculation for better CO2 capture.
4. Inexpensive and quick "direct-down" captured CO2 disposal wells.
5. Plasma, rather than incineration, to convert biomass into syngas.
6. Using biowaste for biomass.
7. Producing both electricity and industrial heat from a combined cycle power plant that features integral carbon capture. This would add electricity to an oil refineries sources of income.
8. The carbon capture system is sized to capture the CO2 from all the site's fossil fuel process fires, not just the power turbines.
9. Mass-produce the site's equipment, and the sites themselves, like cars to get the price down, the quality up, and to produce as many as possible as quickly as possible to impact Climate Change as much as possible.




1. Energy is a common commodity.   Clean energy fuels must be genuinely cheaper than fossil energy fuels before they will be embraced by the world.
2. Climate Change's growth must be STOPPED before Climate Change can be REVERSED . (We are currently dumping over 100 million tons of ADDITIONAL CO2 into the air EVERY DAY.)
3. Possibly fewer than 1/4 of the world's coal power plants would need to be rebuilt to stop Climate Change's growth from ALL fuel sources - about 3/4 of ALL CO2.
4. Both the world's oil and electrical energy industries have the ability to stop the growth of Fossil Fuel Climate Change by re-equipping and operating "Fuel Factories" to both make electricity and to replace all fossil oil and gas fuels with Carbon-neutral Liquid and Gas fuels.

Multiple needs are being addressed by this web site.
1. The need to replace fossil fuels with carbon-neutral fuels to halt most of the incessant intensification of Climate Change so that the reversal of Climate Change becomes a sane idea. 
2. The need to use carbon captured fossil fuels to power the manufacture of all available biomass into carbon-neutral combustion fuels - not to squander our
highest carbon biomass in hundreds of relatively low energy-yielding bio-energy power plants with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) BEFORE decarbonization of all the world's combustion fuels has been completed.
3. The coal power plant sites themselves and the large number of skilled people dependent upon these sites for incomes and taxes. These unique confluences of energy sustaining resources - rivers, rails, roads, etc., should not be squandered by using them for housing developments and shopping centers.


This website is based upon the understanding that fossil fuels will always be preferred as long as clean energy fuels are more expensive.
The world also has over 200 thousand stationary diesel engines in the 2,000 and under horsepower class cranking out electricity and pumping water in rural locations. At the very least they will need to have post-combustion carbon capture added to them.

Every day we are dumping an additional 100 million tons of fossil fuel's CO2 into the air for no good reason.

(From Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Q&A):  Q. In terms of mass, how much carbon does 1 part per million by volume of atmospheric CO2 represent?
Using 5.137 x 1018 kg as the mass of the atmosphere (Trenberth, 1981 JGR 86:5238-46), 1 ppmv of CO2 = 2.13 Gt of carbon.   [G = Giga, or billion.]
- - - So, 400 ppmv CO
2 = 852 Gt of carbon, or 852 billion tons of carbon, or, times 44/12 for CO2 to include the weight of the 2 oxygens at 16 each and one carbon at 12 each = 3,124 billion (3.124 trillion) tons of CO2.
This is why this website is about HALTING the GROWTH of additional CO
2 first, rather than begin by pulling enough existing old CO2 out of the air to make things right again.

It currently constitutes about 0.041% by volume of the atmosphere, (equal to 410 ppm) which corresponds to approximately 3200 gigatons of CO2, containing approximately 870 gigatons of carbon. Each part per million by volume of CO2 in the atmosphere thus represents approximately 2.13 gigatonnes of carbon Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere - Wikipedia