Class VI CO2 Disposal Well Technology
Front Page BLOG Contents Definitions Prolog About
INTRODUCTION: Attacking Climate Change From Both Ends Burying Climate Changing CO2 CO2 Disposal Wells The Electricity & Hydrogen Nuke Next Door The Allam Cycle Water Geoengineering
The Class VI CO2
with CarbFix Additive to Convert Liquefied Captured CO2 to Limestone
About Captured Carbon's Underground CO2 Storage Vault Locations
U.S. and Global Deep Underground BECCS Negative CO2 Storage Zones.
Locating Direct Air CO2 Capture Farms Directly Over CO2 DISPOSAL WELLS Speeds Up Decarbonization and Drives Down Cost.
CCS Networks In The Circular Carbon Economy - Linking Emissions Sources To Geologic Storage Sinks (A September, 2021, Global CCS Institute pdf)
Class IV Shallow Hazardous and Radioactive Injection Wells
The world will need hundreds of Climate Change CO2 Capture Farms and Class VI CO2 Disposal Wells.
States' Carbon Capture and Storage Situation:
"The United States has the technological potential to offset roughly only a decade’s worth of its current CO2 emissions through biological sequestration (i.e., planting trees, etc.,) but a few hundred years’ worth of emissions through carbon dioxide capture and sequestration." - from Congressional Budget Office "The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States, 2007" - Summary, page 2.
See CarbFix: CO2 Locked in the ground forever. Watch: https://www.carbfix.com/ (Skip the ad someone inserted in front of the video.)
If water is added to the liquid CO2 as it is pumped into the ground, the CO2 will turn into limestone [carbonate] after a few years. This locks the CO2 underground forever.
Most CO2 Disposal Wells should be co-located on the same site as their CO2 capturing equipment.
Maps Showing various UNDERGROUND CARBON CAPTURE STORAGE STRATA LOCATIONS
Improve Class VI permitting on private lands
The development of any carbon removal project incorporating the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (without the production of oil or gas) in the United States requires the issuance of a Class VI UIC (Underground Injection Control) permit from EPA. The authority to regulate UIC wells on private lands is granted to EPA through the Safe Drinking Water Act; however, the current review process for obtaining a permit is lengthy, cumbersome, and poorly understood by project developers. In many cases, obtaining a Class VI UIC permit has been and will continue to be a primary bottleneck and uncertainty for near-term DAC and BECCS projects. Currently, EPA has only issued two Class VI permits.41 Notably, the permitting process for Class II UIC wells, which cover the injection of fluids associated with oil and gas production, including carbon dioxide, has effectively issued nearly 200,000 wells and could serve as an excellent reference for improvements to the Class VI permitting process.
Due to the lengthy process of obtaining a Class VI permit at the federal level,several state governments have begun the process of applying for Class VI primacy in order to permit geologic storage wells within their jurisdictions through state review. This application and review process is also lengthy and complex, and only North Dakota and Wyoming have currently received approval from EPA to issue Class VI permits. Presently, EPA is insufficiently staffed, funded, and resourced to meet the demand for Class VI UIC permits.42 Prioritize the review of Class VI UIC well applications to allow potential carbon storage projects to move forward. Because of the additional requirements associated with Class VI UIC permits (as opposed to Class II UIC permits), EPA should allocate additional staff and funding to support the accelerated review of Class VI UIC applications to avoid inhibiting the development of carbon removal projects. The administration should work with Congress to ensure that EPA funding is sufficient to meet these goals.
41. Congressional Research Service.(2020). Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Federal Role and Issues for Congress (CRS Report No. R46192). https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R46192
42. Geraci, M., Ali, S. J., Romolt, C. &Rossman, R. (2017). The Environmental Risks and Oversight of Enhanced Oil Recovery in the United States. Clean Water Action and Clean Water Fund. https://www.cleanwater.org/
- - - from Carbon180 Transition Book'Priorities for Administrative Action on Carbon Removal in 2021+' https://carbon180.org/reports