Discussion & Strategy
Front Page Prolog
Discussion & Strategy
Introduction to this page:
1, Decarbonization is about
ending the production of adding additional Climate Changing carbon dioxide (CO2)
to the air.
2, BECCS is a technology we can use to restore air to the way it has been since time immemorial by removing CO2 from the air.
BECCS stands for Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage.
This website is about BECCS.
To have a chance at limiting warming to 1.5°C and avoiding increasingly severe impacts from climatechange, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that global net anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions must fall by 45% from global 2010 levels by 2030 and reach net-zero by 2050.12 Hitting these targets will require a "rapid and far-reaching" transition across the economy that is "unprecedented in terms of scale."13 - from "The 2020 Democratic Party Climate Crisis Action Plan."
The Climate Crisisl
Electricity is necessary, but
not sufficient, for a country's development. Other important ingredients include
clean water, sewage systems, a growing job market, and ever-improving schools.
In recent years, the use of hydrogen as a fuel supply for transportation, heating, and seasonal energy storage for a future decarbonized energy system has gained growing interest from researchers and industry
A Lithium Ion Battery is just barely off zero.
Radiative Forcing: The powers of those agencies, as opposed to water vapor can all be independently monitored with varying degrees of accuracy. They are expressed in terms of watts per square meter, with error bars indicating a range of uncertainty added on. It is widely recognized that each net increase of one watt per square meter, as actually measured, will result in a gain of approximately 3/4 of one degree C in mean average global temperature at the time of equilibrium several hundred years into the future. (About 60% of the final warming should be felt and recorded in the air in the near term, with supplements added throughout the long waiting period.)
Hydrogen Gas - Origination Color Code
1. Woody biomass contains less energy than coal (biomass pellets 9.6-12.2 GJ/m3 ; coal18.4-23.8 GJ/m3 (IEABioenergy, 2017)), so that CO2 emissions for the same energy output are higher (110 kg CO2/GJ for solid biomass, 94.6-96 kg CO2/GJ for coals in IPCC (2006)). Combined with the energy needs to gather from diffuse sources and intermediate treatment (drying and pelleting), replacing fossil fuels in electricity generation results in significant increases in emissions of CO2 per kWh.
(Above) Carbon Engineering, Calgary, Canada, has a well-developed design for
extracting CO2 from the air and making Jet Fuel out of it. Shown is a fuel
manufacturing facility at an airport.
By using the air's CO2 for the jet fuel's carbon, this airplane is "Carbon-neutral".
The successful flight of the eCaravan, enabled by a 750-horsepower (560 kW) magni500 propulsion system, took place at the AeroTEC Flight Test Center at the Grant County International Airport (KMWH) in Moses Lake, Washington on Thursday.
The iconic Caravan has been a workhorse of industry moving people and transporting goods on short routes for decades. This first flight of the eCaravan is yet another step on the road to operating these middle-mile aircraft at a fraction of the cost, with zero emissions, from and to smaller airports. These electric commercial aircraft will enable the offering of flying services of people and packages in a way previously not possible.—Roei Ganzarski, CEO of magniX
The flying of the eCaravan serves as another critical step in the certification and approval process of the magni500 propulsion system, enabling future conversions of additional aircraft to magniX’s all-electric propulsion technology.
magni500. At a continuous 560 kw / 750 shp and turning at only 1900 RPM, the magni500 is well-suited as a propulsion system for retrofitting existing “middle-mile” aircraft such as the Caravan, Beaver, King Air, Otters and more. It is also suited for use in clean-sheet electric aircraft designs as a stand alone propulsion or as part of a larger multi-motor aircraft.
These vessels will become the largest container ships powered by liquefied natural gas and represent a significant step on the path to the energy transition of the shipping industry.
The type approval was awarded following a series of extensive full-load tests in diesel and gas operation. The CMA CGM Jacques Saadé will now be able to perform its LNG trials in the coming weeks. Earlier this month, the container ship successfully tested the connection with its fuel supply vessel, a ship specifically designed to bunker the Group's LNG-powered 23,000 TEUs.
The certification process of WinGD’s 12X92DF engine was a long process due to the size and complexity of the engine. We mobilized our worldwide teams of engine specialists, especially in China, in France and in Germany, at each of the critical phases of the certification process. Progressive Type Approval Tests were necessary where at each test significant progress and refinement were noted, so that we remained confident that final certification at 100% of the power using gas as fuel was an achievable objective—and this has now been achieved.—Olivier Cartier, Technical Vice President, Bureau Veritas
WinGD’s X92DF engines offer the most sustainable emissions footprint currently available, outperforming expectations for NOx, SOx and PM emissions and with CO2 levels over 20% lower than typical diesel engines. With it’s unique combination of Otto (lean burn) and Diesel cycle technology these engines can adapt for any of the potential sustainable fuels of the future making them a secure asset for a long time to come.—Dominik Schneiter, Vice President, for Research and Development at WinGD
The development of the X92DF engine builds on the expertise and experience gained from more than 500,000 operating hours for WinGD’s market-leading X-DF dual-fuel engine technology. That landmark comes just under four years since the first engine went into service, highlighting the rapid uptake and remarkable reliability of WinGD’s low-pressure concept.
WinGD has received 320 orders for X-DF engines including 60 in operation. The X-DF has been the best-selling dual-fuel low-speed engine technology in the maritime market since the second half of 2017. As well as the first gas-fueled ULCSs, WinGD’s low-pressure X-DF technology also powers the first LNG-fueled Aframax shuttle tankers with VOC recovery and very large crude oil carriers.
CMA CGM Jacques Saadé. In September 2019, CMA CGM launched the Jacques Saadé, the first in a new fleet of nine French-flagged, 23,000-TEU, LNG-powered containerships. Saadé, who died in 2018, was the CMA CGM Group’s founder.
These new vessels will join the Group’s fleet on the French Asia Line (Asia-Northern Europe) and will be registered in the French International Register (RIF), confirming the Group’s commitment to operating under the French flag.
In addition, the nine newbuilds will feature a state-of-the-art bridge design, the world’s first to deliver four major innovations to assist the Captain and crew:
To further improve the environmental performance of the CMA CGM Jacques Saade and her sisterships, their hull forms have been hydrodynamically optimized. The bulb has been seamlessly integrated into the hull profile and the bow is straight. The propeller and rudder blade have also been improved, along with the Becker Twisted Fin.
The exceptionally large vessels (400 meters long and 61 meters wide) will be distinguished from the rest of the fleet by a special livery displaying an “LNG POWERED” logo, attesting to the major worldwide innovation that LNG propulsion represents on ships of this size.
In 2022, the CMA CGM fleet will include 20 LNG-powered vessels, including: