About   Enabling the coming rebuild of the world's electricity power plants to also make Climate Change go away.   Prolog    Second Front Page

We can begin bulk removal of Climate Changing CO2 from the air soon.*
(BECCS = BioEnergy Carbon Capture and Storage. A newly-patented power plant ideal for BECCS use is currently being test run as a 1/10 size (30mW) pilot plant. Toshiba will make a 300 megaWatt version of this plant. It should be available on the global power plant market in 2021.) 

It's proving to be much more difficult to get the world's populations to decarbonize than was first thought.
This Website is suggesting a way we can take the bull by the horns to begin to stop Climate Change's growth now while waiting for the world's populations to decarbonize.

If we can dream it, we can build it. If we can put a man on the moon, we can end Climate Change. To that end, someone needs to constantly explore the possibility of using various configurations of today's emerging industrial technologies. (There is no connection between this website and 8 Rivers Capital.)

A Next Generation Carbon Capturing Power Plant Is Running As A 30 mW Pilot Plant In La Porte, Texas.
Toshiba's 300 megaWatt (mW) production version of this plant is due out in 2021.  300 mW is a large plant.  It's not too early to begin identifying sites, peripherals, and supply logistics.
It's running as a 1/10 size pilot plant to discover the "unknown unknowns" - is anything going to fail way early? - Can operators operate it 24/7/365? - It has components that have no proven predecessor device. - What will happen when they fail? - How do you restart it hot? - Hell, how do you start it cold?

A practical key for unlocking massive amounts of negative CO2 for removing Climate Change from the air is the recently-invented supercritical CO2 ALLAM CYCLE.   
What is really neat about the newly-invented CO2-driven Allam Cycle engine is that it is a fossil-fuel engine that keeps it's emission chemicals separate - they come out in different pipes: CO2 gas, Nitrogen gas, Argon gas, and tons of Liquid Water. 

INTRODUCTION: We are constantly being told we should plant more trees to pull climate-changing carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the air because trees turn the "C" in CO2 into wood carbon (cellulose), and lock it in for the life of the tree while releasing the two "Os" back into the air. Trees, of course, are carbon—if you burn them, each of the tree's carbons is re-combined with a couple of air's oxygens and voila!, you release carbon dioxide, a gas, back into the atmosphere.
So the downside of trees is that eventually the tree will die, the wood will decay, and the wood's "C" (Carbon) will be resurrected as CO2 gas by decay's adding two fresh "Os" from the air to it, and the CO2 rises back into the air from the tree's deadwood grave on the forest floor to make future Climate Change even worse than it would have been otherwise.

A better idea: Let's burn those trees in Allam Cycle engines to make electricity. This will unlock the climate-changing CO2 the trees have previously removed from the air. The Allam Cycle engine's liquefied CO2 emissions pipe can then inject the liquefied CO2 into deep underground porous strata layers where the CO2 would be re-locked underground forever.

More electricity has always been better for a country's economy. As fuel for electricity, more trees sequestered should be better for the environment.

  Using Allam Cycle Power Plants to Make Electricity Using Trees Planted To Remove Climate Change From The Air
Make Negative CO2 to Cancel Out Positive Fossil CO2 Emissions (Climate Change).

Locate this new type of power plant over a CO2 disposal region, burn local trees planted to remove Climate Change CO2 from the air, sell the electricity to local and long-distance grids.

Equipment Pages  >   4 Biomass Handling and Preparation   5 Plasma Torch Gasifier For Wood-to-Syngas   6 Syngas Cleanup   7 Wood Syngas to Methane Upgrade   8 Allam BECCS Power Plant  9 Class VI CO2 Disposal Well    

See:  "Geospatial analysis of near-term potential for carbon-negative bioenergy in the United States" by Ejeong Baik, et al.  (pdf)
Locations without carbon disposal will have to rely on renewables for their electricity.

     Click on small images to enlarge, click on "Browser Return <----" to return to full page.
The countries in the above pie image are rich enough to quickly switch their electricity production from coal to trees to clear the air.
Deployed widely enough, this simple system could remove CO2 emissions from the air faster than CO2 emissions can be made.

Consuming perhaps 200 million tons of trees a day worldwide, this might deliver 100 million tons of Negative CO2 worldwide every day to flat-line CO2 ppm. 
This is a way to use brute force Negative CO
2 to overpower everyone's positive CO2 emissions while the world is working on ways to reduce those emissions.
This technology could null the CO
2 in the air big-time.  As emissions are reduced, our trip back to a No Climate Change Planet Earth becomes faster and faster.

Carbon dioxide is a carbon atom attached to two oxygen atoms to form a CO2 molecule. When a tree grows, it captures a lot of CO2 molecules and then detaches the carbon atom from the CO2's oxygen atoms, discarding the oxygens back into the air. The carbon atoms are then used by the tree to assemble wood fiber. Almost half the weight of a tree are the carbon atoms. Later, when the tree is gasified and burned to make electricity, the burning process re-attaches a couple of oxygen atoms to each of the carbon atoms, producing an exhaust mix of CO2 and water as steam. Wood would not burn without this happening. As shown in this tiny diagram, making CO2 from wood using fire releases a heck of a lot of heat. (Click)    
The Allam cycle power plant has no smokestack. (Click)
 Burning natural gas fuel in the Allam engine causes 3.25% of the CO2 produced to become excess. It is bled off the working fluid stream to be sequestered (stored forever) in the ground, eventually to become limestone, while retaining the remainder of the CO2 as the engine's working fluid. [In a steam engine power plant 100% of the working fluid - water - is recovered and reused.] In addition to the CO2 pipe coming out of the Allam engine, there are water (the combustion product), plus nitrogen and argon pipes (left over from extracting the combustion oxygen from the air). These are of industrial purity and can be sold. 
Toshiba will be making the Allam cycle plant's heavy equipment - the combustor (a device usually found in jet engines - there is no boiler), a strange-looking, rather small, single stage CO2+steam turbine , and a conventional electricity generator. One might consider this design to be a rocket engine (the combustor) connected directly to, and blasting directly into, a really strong steam turbine. Recall the white steam plume coming from space launch rockets? Toshiba plans on mass producing a large - 300 megaWatt(e) - power plant generator product. Power plants almost always come in at least a pair of generators. A pair of 300 megaWatt generators should be able to power a city with a population of about 1 million.

The world has over 50,000 coal and oil powered steam turbine engine power plants. Replacing about 6,000 of them with Allam "Skyscrubber" wood burning plants to end Climate Change along with tens of thousands of Allam coal burning power plant replacements (see below) to end their atmospheric CO2 emissions would go a long way toward stopping Climate Change.

This is disruptive technology at its best. Changing just the electricity part of the world may drastically reduce and alter the nature and number of other changes that are currently deemed necessary to mitigate Climate Change.

Success of this idea depends on the technology for gasifying a sufficient volume of trees into natural gas pipeline quality methane. The time has come for James Watt's 1772 steam cycle engine (which brought Climate Change along with powering the modern world) to make room for Rodney Allam's 2018 CO2 cycle engine (which possibly could stop Climate Change while not changing the modern world very much).

The intent for inventing the Allam Cycle was to make a very cost-efficient oxycombustion fossil fuel burning (i.e., natural gas, oil, coal, or lignite) electricity power plant that, by virtue of exploiting the energy advantages of CO2 as a working fluid, does not add to global air CO2 emissions and does not incur the heavy cost and energy penalties of traditional carbon capture and sequestration technologies.
The intent of this web site is to apply the Allam cycle power plant to an application that, in addition to making the world's electricity, also produces sufficient negative emissions to roll back Global Warming thereby extensively mitigating Climate Change.

We can make such a facility today with a plasma wood gasifier feeding a pair of today's conventional combined cycle gas turbines    in post-combustion BECCS mode, but you would also need to purchase, power, and maintain an expensive amount of big post-combustion carbon-capturing equipment and accept the large parasitic power loss and, at best, only about 90%, not 100%, of the CO2 would end up getting captured with the remainder escaping back into the air. 

1, Electrify everything possible with Allam cycle electricity. 2, Use carbon-neutral energy fuels for mobility and heat when we must.

A new Emission Unit? One "Emission Day" = 100 million tons of negative carbon dioxide. One "Emission Year" = 36.5 billion tons of CO2.  These are big numbers but do illustrate the fact that rolling Climate Change back to normal will be a staggeringly large task.
It will be a couple of years before the Toshiba Allam 300 megaWatt power plant hits the electricity market so we have some time to refine the details of a negative version of the Allam power plant for subtracting out all that CO2 that's causing Climate Change.

I have dubbed this combination of industrial equipment "Skyscrubber". Skyscrubber is becoming do-able and practical. Thousands will be needed. This equipment is undergoing rapid development by European manufacturers for use by the emerging "Green Natural Gas" systems industry being planned to replace the equipment currently being used to supply Europe's fossil natural gas grids.

It will literally take a world of work switching the world to make our electricity out of harvest-able wood planted all over the world.

BioEnergy combined with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is the only option for negative emissions.                                                                                                    

So, by adding or removing air's CO2, we can set the world's thermostat wherever we like. . . . . .
The CO2 in the air acts like a blanket - the more CO2, the thicker the blanket. Taking CO2 out of the air is like taking a blanket off your bed - you feel the change quickly.


Practical Example:  The SKYscrubber Clean Energy Park

SKYscrubber facilities take trees made of air's CO2, make synthetic heating gas out of it, then use the heating gas to make electricity in Allam power plants, then store the air's CO2 forever safely deep underground.
Clean Energy Parks have
what it takes to convert some of the synthetic heating gas into net-zero liquid transportation fuels such as Biogasoline, Biodiesel, Biojet fuel.

If S
KYscrubbers run short of biomass synthetic heating gas for making electricity, they can safely use and sequester fossil natural gas instead.

Financing the halting of Climate Change's progression is going to be difficult. Perhaps a rotating crop of about one trillion trees or equivalent energy plants such as switchgrass will be needed for 100 years. Planet Earth currently has about 3 trillion trees and might support an additional trillion. Consider this: Coal is almost everywhere. The world's countries - large and small - must have over a half-million professional coal miners. Anyone brave enough, strong enough, and smart enough to be able to earn a living working in dark and dangerous coal mines would certainly make excellent foresters for the forests now growing in the rural areas around most of the world's coal mines.
Forestry agriculture in the most impoverished countries would be subsidized by the world's most industrialized countries. It shouldn't cost much. The negative emissions will help the entire world, the electricity - which will be a by-product in this instance - should help the impoverished country immensely. Recall what happened at Niagara Falls when George Westinghouse, Tesla, and Steinmetz built their hydro plant there. It attracted energy hungry companies like ALCOA.
For a while, Niagara Falls became the foremost source of hydroelectric power in North America, stimulating the development of innovative heavy industries in the Niagara Falls and Buffalo areas.

The United States is currently exporting tree wood pellets to Europe to help out with their environment cleaning of electricity programs. Some agrarian countries could become wealthy exporting tree wood pellets. 


How it works: It begins by making carbon monoxide (CO) out of wood pellets (4) by heating them to several thousand degrees in a electric plasma torch heated gasifier (5), after which impurities are removed (6). The CO is then catalytically upgraded to methane (CH4) (7), commonly described as "Synthetic Natural Gas".

The synthetic methane is then used to power an Allam cycle engine (8) to make electricity. The Allam engine captures the CO2 exhaust produced by it's combustion of methane as liquid CO2, which then comes out of the engine in its own pipe rather than going up a smokestack.

The liquid CO2 is then pumped thousands of feet underground by injecting it into a nearby carbon capture and sequestration (storage) well (9).  CarbFix: CO2 Locked in the ground forever. Watch:

If water is added to the liquid CO2 as it is pumped into the ground, the CO2 will turn into limestone after a few years. This locks the CO2 underground forever.

The term "SKYscrubber Clean Energy Park" denotes a dual (300 megaWatt(e) x 2) power plant facility designed to supply the electrical demands of 450,000 California I.S.O. houses to its surrounding rural, city, commercial, and industrial populations. It would have to have local, state, and federal construction and operating permits, it would be equipped with wood preparation equipment, plasma torch biomass gasifier, wood syngas to pipeline grade natural gas (methane) catalytic upgrader, backup natural gas or other fossil fuel source, a Class VI CO2 disposal well, be constructed over a CO2 injection and sequestration strata, and have road access, railroad access, dark start capability, electricity substation, switchyard, and transmission lines, water, sewage, and digital telecommunication facilities.


CO2 Sequestration

 "The United States has the technological potential to offset roughly only a decade’s worth of its current CO2 emissions through biological sequestration (i.e., planting trees, etc.,) but a few hundred years’ worth of emissions through carbon dioxide capture and sequestration." - from Congressional Budget Office "The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States, 2007" - Summary, page 2.

Storing CO2 underground can have geological consequences and is only done legally under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies. 
Example:  Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership: 

(One of dozens of Global CCS Institute reports.) Lessons and Perceptions: Adopting a Commercial Approach to CCS Liability: 14th August 2019, Organization: Global CCS Institute, CCS Liability, CCS Projects, Liability.

We still have several hundred years of fossil fuels remaining. A few hundred years should be enough time to perfect nuclear energy.   

The world may need more than 5,000 Skyscrubber electricity plants to head off the worst of Climate Change.  Like cars, airplanes, and ships, Skyscrubber electricity plants would be modular in design similar to today's electricity power plants. Multiple electricity plants could be located at a single site. Such modularity is an economic advantage in several ways. The cost, quality, and reliability of mass-produced machines is hard to beat. 

There are almost unlimited opportunities for completely new greenfield Skyscrubber electricity power plants now that prime underground strata for CCS CO2 sequestration locations have been identified enabling cheap straight-down CO2 disposal via disposal wells located on site property. Since potable water is one of the Allam Cycle's exhaust products, Skyscrubber power plants could be located virtually anywhere there is a CO2 disposal strata and sufficient biomass. This means there is no need for a costly national CO2 disposal pipeline grid that may take 20 years and billions of dollars to complete due to opposition by environmentalists.
Storing CO2 underground improperly could create an unsafe site and is only to be done under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies.


* The Allam Thermodynamic Cycle Is The Best Key To Date For Unlocking Negative Emissions From Wood To End Climate Change

The Watt engine was a commercial success because it had a significant economical advantage over existing engine options. This also appears to be true for the Allam Cycle.

Toshiba, NET Power, Chicago Bridge & Iron, Exelon, Air Liquide, and 8 Rivers Capital are working together to develop and commercialize the application of supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle technology for efficient emissions-free electric power generation.
The successful running of the Allam Thermodynamic Cycle pilot power plant in La Porte, Texas, provides solid evidence the Climate Change situation has changed for the better.

We can remove the excess CO2 we are putting in the air by making carbon-captured electricity from biomass syngas using the Allam Cycle in BECCS mode. This one change may be the quickest way to roll back Planet Earth's air CO2 to normal.

The Allam Cycle is a very new turbine technology that uses supercritical CO2 instead of steam as its working fluid. As of now, it is only running as a 1/10th size pilot plant in La Porte, Texas, since last November. So far, so good.
     The company:        
CarbFix - CO2 Locked in the ground forever. Watch:
     Descriptive Articles: 

One has to be struck by how different the Allam Cycle engine is from it's long evolutionary line of internal combustion heat engine ancestors such as the Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, Brayton cycle, Lenoir cycle, Leclerc cycle, etc.
Lacking a boiler, it's combustor, connected directly to the turbine, is clearly descended from a liquid fuel rocket engine, on the other hand, it's turbine is a basic single-stage steam power plant turbine exhausting both steam and carbon dioxide into an exotic hotwell.  

"One promising route for oxy-combustion is the so called "Allam Cycle", technology that is based on a new thermodynamic cycle that "uses a high-pressure CO2 cycle that makes carbon capture part of the core power generation process" (NetPower, 2017). The pilot plant is under construction as of 2017. It uses a turbine that uses natural gas (methane), which is combusted with oxygen. The exhaust CO2 gets recycled, so the working fluid inside the turbine is CO2. The CO2 recycling process increases the efficiency of the process and it compensates the cost penalty. If proven successful, this technology can provide a substantial change in CCS economics."
- - -
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage: key issues and major challenges - Claire Nicolas*,§ , Y-H. Henry Chen* , Jennifer Morris* , Niven Winchester* , Sergey Paltsev*± * MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

From what your author knows about carbon capture at this time, it looks as if the Allam cycle has it all over the other carbon capturing technologies out there and, if located above safely sequestable strata, it can provide the world with a bigger, cheaper, and cleaner carbon capture capability while being powered by a greater variety of fuels.

To be clear about the Allam Cycle engine's capabilities and possibilities: 
The Allam Cycle Engine is a fossil fuel combustion gas machine that runs in the Oxy-fuel Carbon Capture mode. It uses carbon dioxide rather than nitrogen as the combustion diluent. This means it is incapable of producing air-polluting nitrous oxides (NOx). Different versions will enable it to run on the fossil fuels Natural Gas, Oil, Coal, Lignite. It will also run on Biomass Syngas along with carbon-neutral liquid fuels containing sufficient thermal energy content such as ethanol, etc. This fuel flexibility assures every country in the world has forms of local energy (often rooted in coal or biomass) that can power it and thus obtain Climate Change clean electricity at a very economically desirable cost. Smaller than coal powered steam generators, upgrading existing coal power plant facilities with new replacement Allam machinery may be a possibility for cash-strapped countries.

The Allam Cycle electricity power plant will only be available from a single source, Toshiba, in a single size, 300 megaWatts(e), large enough to power 225,000 California standard I.S.O. houses.

This old electrical engineer may be over-enthusiastic because this is the most successful supercritical carbon dioxide power plant he has ever read about, but at this moment, It looks like the world's first power plant with enough megaWatt power and displacement capacity to punch holes in Climate Change simply by burning substantial amounts of wood and sequestering the emissions. The notion that 6,000 of them could gang up on Global Warming and actually suck it out of the air is very appealing.


The Plasma Torch Wood Gasifier

There may be a missing link:
A wood biomass chip or pellet gasification facility capable of meeting the Allam fuel quality specification and supplying sufficient gas volume for a 300 mW Toshiba Allam facility. At this time there is no wood gasifier large enough to power a 300 mW Allam electricity generating turbine available on the industrial market.
It is conceivable that the gasification system that has already been developed for burning lignite (60 million year old peat - compared to 250 million year old coal) in Allam cycle systems can be further developed for using wood pellets in an Allam BECCS application.

So, the first thing that needs to be accomplished is the engineering necessary for building a wood gasifier and methanator with sufficient capacity to power a Toshiba Allam power plant at perhaps 70% of full load (maximum baseload). This is equipment item "0" on the Skyscrubber Systems sketch above.

Gasifying ligneous material – in other words wood – to obtain a “lean” gas. Once it has been washed and purified, the lean gas undergoes a process of methanisation to turn it into a “rich” gas, primarily composed of methane, which can then be injected into gas networks.

Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) is biomethane that is upgraded to natural gas pipeline quality standards such that it may blend with, or substitute for, geologic natural gas.
This is the industry most likely to be able to make this kind of equipment big enough for BECCS applications.


The other technologies needed to build Skyscrubber power plants

1.  is offering the biomass processing technology for a version of the Skyscrubber power plant now. 
Also, check out plasma gasifier manufacturer AlterNRG:


How many trees will it take to remove 100 million tons of CO2 from the air per day (all sites combined)?

If you want to capture large volumes of air's CO2 carbon quickly, you can't beat wood biomass. 200 one-million ton trains a day would stop Climate Change.
 The nascent Toshiba-built Allam Cycle 300 megaWatt power plant is big electricity. Instead of a train-a-day of coal, it will be at least train-a-day of green wood pellets or chips to each power plant.
The world made 23,816 TW-h (TerraWatt-Hours) or 23,816,000,000 MW-h (MegaWatt-hours) of electricity in 2017.
How many 300 MW Toshiba-Allam power plants burning how many tons of green wood a year do we need to make that much electricity?

This is a diagram of the burning of methane.    

Making biomethane in relatively small quantities from many diverse biosources, i.e., landfill, agwaste, and other similar biomass emissions is relatively easy and becoming common. Making biomethane from green wood in massive power plant quantities that exactly duplicates the relatively high energy content and purity of fossil natural gas (methane) is a work-in-progress at many fuel companies that see the handwriting on the wall.

Currently, biogas production plants are typically farms or waste treatment units where methane from agricultural by-products and waste is used to produce heat or combined heat and power (CHP). Due to its low energy density, this methane feedstock tends to be processed and consumed locally. Power plants that are burning wood to reduce their CO2 emissions are usually substituting cleaner wood pellets for coal to qualify for CO2 emissions reduction subsidies.

In Europe, currently 355 biomethane plants inject 11 TWh into the gas networks, an increase of 50% since 2013, and enough to heat approx. 740,000 homes. Furthermore, with an outlook on 17 TWh being injected to the gas networks by 2020 in Green Gas Initiative countries, the climate and environmental profile for gas consumption will improve, cutting CO2 -emissions of approx. 3.5 million tonnes2 or the equivalent of 1.8 million passenger car’s yearly CO2 emissions3 .

California has biomass power plants that consume 1 ton of woody biomass per hour for each megaWatt-hour produced. So, a 300 megaWatt plant could consume as much as 24 x 300 tons or 7,200 tons of woody biomass per day. If a typical tree is 3 tons, that would be 2,400 trees per day. 300 megaWatts times 24 hours is 7,200 megaWatt-hours. Electricity selling at $60 per mW-h would bring $432,000 per day or $157,680,000 per year.
And this is for an inefficient, i.e., non-plasma, gasifier powering an inefficient, i.e., non-Allam type power plant with less than 30% rather than the Allam's 50% thermal efficiency.

Anthracite coal costs a lot less than wood pellets per unit of heat (BTU). A pound of Anthracite coal has almost twice the heat as a pound of wood pellets, therefore pellets have to be almost 1/2 the cost of Anthracite coal to be at the same cost per unit of heat. The cost of pellets would have to drop to $140/ton to be equal to the cost per unit of heat (BTU) of Anthracite coal that cost $250/ton.

A recent tree census indicates there may be 3 trillion trees in the world. That's 3 thousand billion trees. A billion is a thousand million. Once you have an efficient way to store air's CO2 safely forever underground, storing CO2 forever in trees above ground becomes a very bad idea and far more Climate Change dangerous. Eventually the CO2 will escape back into the air and make Climate Change even worse. We have to think of biomass such as trees as vegetables, not hallowed repositories of captured CO2. A map published in Sept 2015 NATURE magazine reveals that the global number of trees is approximately 3.04 trillion, an order of magnitude higher than the previous accepted estimate.

At some point a tree's CO2 gathering performance reaches it's maximum and begins to decline. It will eventually die and become mankind's climate enemy, its decaying CO2 returning to the air as surely as if it were burning.

Trees that have reached optimal CO2-gathering growth should be harvested immediately and replaced with vigorously growing young trees to continue the process of gathering as much CO2 from the air as rapidly as possible. The ground minerals recovered in the gasification clean-up process will be recycled as fertilizers and redistributed in the forest farms (stands).

The harvested trees, along with other available biomass (perhaps city garbage, sewage, agwaste, forest trimmings, etc.) would then be pelletized and their molecules broken down by a electrical plasma torch that makes Sun-hot heat.  Heat this hot breaks the atomic bonds that hold molecules together, creating free carbon atoms and other atoms that can be sorted out and reassembled into syngas (synthetic methane gas) fuel for the Allam electricity power plant and remineralizing fertilizer for tree farms.

Getting the job of building thousands of Skyscrubber facilities done quickly: Once the world realizes it needs thousands of Allam BECCS systems, everyone will want them NOW. In times of emergency, manufacture of critical technologies equipment can be licensed to multiple capable, but competing companies to quickly produce thousands of identical machines simultaneously. Led by Franklin Roosevelt, the United States did a masterful job of turning the Free World into the "Arsenal of Democracy" during World War II through cross-licensing of war-related patents and other technologies. The United States is again in the position to, this time, invent, produce, and manufacture the tools that will save the world from Climate Change.

The United States alone built 6,768 full-size ocean-going ships and about 300,000 airplanes over 4 years during World War II. With the Allam Cycle electricity power plant, bringing Climate Change under control is a much smaller task.

There is no reason the same wartime crisis production strategies cannot be used to quickly end the Climate Change Crisis.

Cities = power plants.   Thousands of cities, thousands of Skyscrubbers.


Information about the government's different Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Acts
(Courtesy of Climate Change Working Group):

First, here's a link to the bill itself: 
Second, for anyone without the time or interest to read the entire bill, a link to a "road map" of the bill's contents, so the most relevant sections can be found with some ease: 
Third, here's a link to Citizen's Climate Lobby's website about the bill, which also allows a reader to see who has already endorsed the bill and what the press is saying about it. It includes an endorsement tool: 
Finally, for anyone wanting to compare this bill to other carbon pricing bills, an assessment that compares this bill (sponsored by Rep. Ted Deutch of Florida and therefore called the Deutch bill in the analysis) to others:

All these carbon tax fees raise a very serious question:
Q. How much per ton of CO2 is going to be refunded by the government to the operators of the above Skyscrubber power plants to establish and operate a carbon dioxide disposal well on their own property?

A. Deutch bill: This section amends the Tax Code (Title 26) by adding the following subsections: Subtitle L - "Carbon Dividends and Carbon Fee", Sec. 9906 - Carbon Capture and Sequestration:

"Provides a refund of Carbon Fee paid when qualified carbon dioxide is captured and sequestered in a safe and permanent manner. Requires establishment of sound criteria for safe and permanent sequestration. Only CO2 from covered fuels, and only rebate for amount likely to remain sequestered."

- - - In the United States there are now 2 big carbon capture incentives: A recently expanded federal tax credit for captured CO2 and California’s new law requiring 100% of its electricity come from carbon-free sources by 2045.

In the U.S., carbon capture has led to the formation of extraordinary alliances. In 2018, a tax credit known as 45Q—so named for the relevant provision in the law—was revised to provide higher incentives for CCS with support from congressional lawmakers of both parties, big oil and gas, industry, and environmentalists. Over time, it will ramp up to $50 per metric ton of carbon stored geologically and $35 per metric ton of carbon stored through enhanced oil recovery, provided projects commence construction by the end of 2023. - Brad Page, Bloomberg Environment, Posted May 13, 2019, 6:00 AM

The LCFS and CCS Protocol: An Overview for Policymakers and Project Developers - California - pdf.  If building the above Skyscrubber Power Plant interests you, you need this document.


How To Produce The Carbon-neutral Combustion Fuels Needed To End the 100 Million Tons of Fossil CO2 We Are Adding to the Air Every Day


                             2016_billion_ton_report_12.2.16_0.pdf (400+ Pages)                                          Methanol - The Basic Chemical and Energy Feedstock of the Future.pdf



Our Climate Change Outlook

CO2 accounts for 77% of the greenhouse gases. Methane 14% (mostly natural gas), Nitrous Oxide 8% (mostly cars and trucks), and Freons 1%.


"Technological fixes are often far simpler, and therefore cheaper, than the doomsayers could have imagined." -  ( From Prologue )

One objective of this website is to communicate that the Climate Change crisis resembles the horseshit crisis described in the Prologue's story. 

Here’s an analogy that Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, who helped compile some of the climate research data for the World Bank, likes to use.
"Take the human body. If your temperature rises 2°C, you have a significant fever. If it rises 4°C or 6°C you can die. It’s not a linear change."


Comment: This web site content was initially inspired by the PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) paper: "Geospatial analysis of near-term potential for carbon-negative bioenergy in the United States" by Ejeong Baik, et al, 2/12/2018. Written largely by people from the Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305. It's an open access document containing 44 BECCS and negative emissions technical references, you can Google it and download it as a pdf. They identified 1,000 U.S. counties where power plant, fuel, and CO2 storage could be collocated. Written before the advent of Toshiba's commercial size Allam Thermodynamic Cycle plant, they talked about relatively tiny biofuel powered power plants about the size of the Allam Pilot plant.   pdf: 

Your website author is an electrical/electronic control systems engineer with a few years in several power plant designs and a lot of years in heavy industrial energy and control systems. Thermodynamic advances such as the Allam Cycle typically come to the world once a century and typically offer breakthrough opportunities in what they enable mankind to do. In the Allam Cycle's case, it delivers its carbon dioxide emission in a pure form ready for underground storage forever (sequestration).  The fossil fuel industry has already engineered coal and lignite fuel natural gas methanisation front end modules to this natural-gas-only Allam cycle as a way to address the damage their fuels inflict on the environment today in hopes of retaining their future markets rather than see their fuels outlawed.

There is wood-to-natural gas pipeline technology being developed both in the U.S. and Europe as way to replace fossil natural combustion gas [methane] with carbon neutral combustion gas [green methane]. The green gas volumes to be produced by commercial gas main technology suggest the volumes of carbon dioxide gas that must be removed from the air to restore Planet Earth's environment to it's former self. Green gas burned in the air is only carbon-neutral. Green Gas burned in an Allam Cycle power plant and sequestered forever in the ground is the removal of carbon from the air forever or carbon negative.

So, a firewood front end consisting of commercial green gas main pipeline size equipment combined with a Toshiba power plant size Allam Cycle engine, ought to make a serious dent in the amount of Global Warming, Climate Changing, CO2 in the air when multiplied by the number of coal and gas power plants already covering the world.



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  Disclaimer: This website is energy talk by an engineer exploring Climate Change's opportunities for creating a clean combustion fuel future - not professional engineering advice.  


Reader's Comments:

I have been reading your site to Sue who is not technically trained. She was able to understand most of it. Here are Some comments:
1. It is difficult to jump from the small pictures to the enlarged version (good) and then find that place again to continue on the site.
2. Where does the Toshiba 30 mega watt installation get the O2?
3. Can you compose a 3-6 paragraph explanation of your site that I can share with others?

- Dave

  1. Tiny images. Clicking on the “back” arrow (upper left corner of your browser) should restore the view you were looking at before expanding the tiny image. I use Firefox and Explorer. Don’t know about other browsers.
  2. Oxygen supply. The pilot plant’s next door neighbor is an “Air Liquide” plant. Rodney Allam was head of research for 30 years at “Air Products”, a UK company. I think Air Liquide is a French company and they know each other quite well. Anyway, the Air Separation Unit (ASU) is a relative non-issue and its size depends upon the size of the power plant. They claim the energy the ASU will take will come from the energy saved by not having to go through a state change to wring the combustion water out of the CO2 after it leaves the turbine. As shown in the small “The Allam Cycle Is Simple” drawing, this heat energy is returned to the CO2 by the heat recuperator stage of the heat exchanger just before the CO2 returns to the combustor.

In a coal heated steam power plant, the spent steam is turned back into water as it exhausts into the hotwell below the turbine to re-use it in the boiler and the heat released by the steam condensing into water is dumped into the air via the power plant’s cooling tower or pond water heat exchanger (like Big Bend). In addition to no smokestack, no cooling tower. REALLY ADVANCED. Like it came from some other planet. The net result is the Allam cycle converts about 60% of the natural gas’ heat energy into electricity; a coal steam plant converts a little over 30% of coal’s energy into electricity. I’m hoping adding my firewood front end won’t reduce the overall efficiency below 50%.

The efficiency of supercritical carbon dioxide blows away all other single-cycle forms of electricity generation and only combined cycle gas turbines can touch it for short periods of time at maximum output.

I agree my first page needs a good 3 to 6 paragraph explanation.

Glad you find it interesting.

Jim Holm