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                                                                                                                                                                                                         https://www.netpower.com/technology/


The time has come to take the bull by the horns.
It's proving to be much more difficult to get the world's populations to decarbonize than was first thought.
This Website is offering a way to Stop Climate Change's growth now while waiting for the world's populations to decarbonize.

We Can Begin Ending Climate Change Reasonably Soon For A Reasonable Price.*      
If we can dream it, we can build it. If we can put a man on the moon, we can end Climate Change. To that end, someone needs to constantly explore the possibility of using various configurations of today's emerging industrial technologies. (There is no connection between this website and 8 Rivers Capital.)

This website is built upon the recently-invented ALLAM CO2 CYCLE ENGINE: THE LITTLE ENGINE THAT COULD . . . . . . . . . . END CLIMATE CHANGE. 
What is really neat about the newly-invented steam-turbine class Allam Cycle engine is that it is a fossil-fuel engine that keeps it's emission chemicals separate and they come out in different pipes: CO2 gas, Nitrogen gas, Argon gas, and tons of Liquid Water.

INTRODUCTION: We are constantly being told we should plant more trees to pull climate-changing carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the air because trees turn the "C" of CO2 into wood (cellulose), and lock it in for the life of the tree, freeing up the two "Os" for animals to breathe. Trees, of course, are carbon—if you burn them, you release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. So the downside of trees is that eventually the tree will die, the wood will decay, and the wood's "C" (Carbon) will be resurrected by decay's adding two fresh "Os" from the air to it, rising back into the air from the tree's deadwood grave on the forest floor to make future Climate Change even worse than it would have been otherwise.

This website has a better idea: Let's burn those trees in Allam Cycle engines to make electricity. This will unlock the climate-changing CO2 the trees have previously removed from the air. The Allam Cycle engine's liquefied CO2 emissions pipe can then inject the liquefied CO2 into deep underground porous strata pockets where the CO2 will be re-locked underground as limestone forever. See maps showing underground storage strata locations: *About CO2 turning into limestone: *

  Using Thousands Of Allam Cycle Power Plants to Make All the World's Electricity PLUS Make Sufficient Negative CO2 to Sequester The Day's Climate Change.

Deployed widely enough, this simple system could remove CO2 emissions from the air faster than CO2 emissions can be made.

Consuming perhaps 200 million tons of trees a day worldwide, this might deliver 100 million tons of Negative CO2 worldwide every day to flat-line CO2 ppm. 
This is a way to use brute force Negative CO
2 to overpower everyone's positive CO2 emissions while the world is working on ways to reduce those emissions.
This technology will null the CO
2 in the air big-time.  As emissions are reduced, our trip back to a No Climate Change Planet Earth becomes faster and faster.

Carbon dioxide is a carbon atom attached to two oxygen atoms to form a CO2 molecule. When a tree grows, it captures a lot of CO2 molecules and then detaches the carbon atom from the CO2's oxygen atoms, discarding the oxygens back into the air. The carbon atoms are then used by the tree to assemble wood fiber. Almost half the weight of a tree are the carbon atoms. Later, when the tree is gasified and burned to make electricity, the burning process re-attaches a couple of oxygen atoms to each of the carbon atoms, producing an exhaust mix of CO2 and water as steam. Wood would not burn without this happening. As shown in this tiny diagram, making CO2 from wood using fire releases a heck of a lot of heat. (Click)    
The Allam cycle power plant has no smokestack. (Click)
 Burning natural gas fuel in the Allam engine causes 3.25% of the CO2 produced to become excess. It is bled off the working fluid stream to be sequestered (stored forever) in the ground, eventually to become limestone, while retaining the remainder of the CO2 as the engine's working fluid. [In a steam engine power plant 100% of the working fluid - water - is recovered and reused.] In addition to the CO2 pipe coming out of the Allam engine, there are water (the combustion product), plus nitrogen and argon pipes (left over from extracting the combustion oxygen from the air). These are of industrial purity and can be sold. 
 
Toshiba will be making the Allam cycle plant's heavy equipment - the combustor (a device usually found in jet engines - there is no boiler), a strange-looking, rather small, single stage CO2+steam turbine , and a conventional electricity generator. One might consider this design to be a rocket engine connected directly to, and blasting directly into, a steam turbine. Recall the white steam plume coming from space launch rockets. Toshiba plans on mass producing a large - 300 megaWatt(e) - power plant generator product. Power plants always come in at least a pair of generators. A pair of 300 megaWatt generators should be able to power a city with a population of about 1 million.

The world has over 50,000 coal and oil powered steam turbine engine power plants. Replacing about 6,000 of them with Allam "Skyscrubber" wood burning plants to end Climate Change along with tens of thousands of Allam coal burning power plant replacements (see below) to end their atmospheric CO2 emissions would go a long way toward stopping Climate Change.

This is disruptive technology at its best. Changing just the electricity part of the world may drastically reduce and alter the nature and number of other changes that are currently being contemplated. Success of this idea depends on the technology for gasifying a sufficient volume of trees into a sufficiently high quality of methane. The time has come for James Watt's 1772 steam cycle engine (which brought Climate Change) to make room for Rodney Allam's 2018 CO2 cycle engine (which promises to mitigate Climate Change).

The intent for inventing the Allam Cycle was to make a very efficient oxycombustion fossil fuel burning (i.e., natural gas, oil, or coal) electricity power plant that, by virtue of exploiting the energy advantages of CO2 as a working fluid, does not add to global air CO2 emissions and does not incur the heavy cost and energy penalties of traditional carbon capture and sequestration technologies.
 
The intent of this web site is to apply the Allam cycle power plant to an application that, in addition to making the world's electricity, also produces sufficient negative emissions to roll back Global Warming thereby extensively mitigating Climate Change.

You can make such a facility today with a plasma wood gasifier feeding a pair of today's conventional combined cycle gas turbines    in post-combustion BECCS mode but you would also need to purchase and power/maintain expensive amount of big post-combustion carbon-capturing equipment and accept that, at best, only about 90%, not 100%, of the carbon would end up getting captured with the remainder escaping back into the air. 

1, Electrify everything possible with Allam cycle electricity. 2, Use carbon-neutral energy fuels for mobility and heat when we must.

How fast? One "Emission Day" = 100 million tons of negative carbon dioxide. One "Emission Year" = 36.5 billion tons of CO2.  These are big numbers but do illustrate the fact that rolling Climate Change back to normal will be a staggeringly big task.
It will be a couple of years before the Toshiba Allam 300 megaWatt power plant hits the electricity market so we have some time to refine the details of a negative version for sucking back all that CO2 that's causing Climate Change.
I have dubbed this combination of industrial equipment "Skyscrubber". Skyscrubber is becoming do-able and practical. Thousands will be needed. It will literally take a world of work switching the world to make our electricity out of only wood.

 

So, by adding or removing air's CO2, we can set the world's thermostat wherever we like. . . . . .
The CO2 in the air acts like a blanket - the more CO2, the thicker the blanket. Taking CO2 out of the air is like taking a blanket off your bed - you feel the change quickly.

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Practical Example:  The Skyscrubber Clean Energy Park

Skyscrubber facilities take trees made of air's CO2, make synthetic heating gas out of it, then use the heating gas to make electricity in Allam power plants, then store the air's CO2 forever safely deep underground.
Clean Energy Parks have
what it takes to convert some of the synthetic heating gas into net-zero liquid transportation fuels such as Biogasoline, Biodiesel, Biojet fuel.

If Skyscrubbers run short of biomass
synthetic heating gas for making electricity, they can safely use and sequester fossil natural gas instead.

Financing the halting of Climate Change's progression is going to be difficult. Perhaps a rotating crop of about one trillion trees or equivalent energy plants such as switchgrass will be needed for 100 years. Planet Earth currently has about 3 trillion trees and might support an additional trillion. Consider this: Coal is almost everywhere. The world's countries - large and small - must have over a half-million professional coal miners. Anyone brave enough, strong enough, and smart enough to be able to earn a living working in dark and dangerous coal mines would certainly make excellent foresters for the forests now growing in the rural areas around most of the world's coal mines.
 
Forestry agriculture in the most impoverished countries would be subsidized by the world's most industrialized countries. It shouldn't cost much. The negative emissions will help the entire world, the electricity - which will be a by-product in this instance - should help the impoverished country immensely. Recall what happened at Niagara Falls when George Westinghouse, Tesla, and Steinmetz built their hydro plant there. It attracted energy hungry companies like ALCOA.
For a while, Niagara Falls became the foremost source of hydroelectric power in North America, stimulating the development of innovative heavy industries in the Niagara Falls and Buffalo areas.

The United States is currently exporting tree wood pellets to Europe to help out with their environment cleaning of electricity programs. Some agrarian countries could become wealthy exporting tree wood pellets. 
 



Equipment Pages  
> 
 
0 Skyscrubber Site   1 Allam BECCS Power Plant   5 Biomass Handling and Preparation   6 Wood to Syngas Plasma Torch Gasifier  
7 Wood Syngas to Methane Upgrade  8 Class VI CO2 Disposal Well    

The term "Skyscrubber Clean Energy Park" denotes a dual (300 megaWatt(e) x 2) power plant facility designed to supply the electrical demands of 450,000 California I.S.O. houses to its surrounding rural, city, commercial, and industrial populations. It would have to have local, state, and federal construction and operating permits, it would be equipped with wood preparation equipment, plasma torch biomass gasifier, wood syngas to pipeline grade natural gas (methane) catalytic upgrader, backup natural gas or other fossil fuel source, a Class VI CO2 disposal well, be constructed over a CO2 injection and sequestration strata, and have road access, railroad access, dark start capability, electricity substation, switchyard, and transmission lines, water, sewage, and digital telecommunication facilities.

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CO2 Sequestration

 "The United States has the technological potential to offset roughly only a decade’s worth of its current CO2 emissions through biological sequestration (i.e., planting trees, etc.,) but a few hundred years’ worth of emissions through carbon dioxide capture and sequestration." - from Congressional Budget Office "The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States, 2007" - Summary, page 2.

Storing CO2 underground can have geological consequences and is only done legally under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies. 
Example:  Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership:  https://www.mrcsp.org/ 

(One of dozens of Global CCS Institute reports.) Lessons and Perceptions: Adopting a Commercial Approach to CCS Liability: 14th August 2019, Organization: Global CCS Institute, CCS Liability, CCS Projects, Liability.
https://www.globalccsinstitute.com/resources/publications-reports-research/


We still have several hundred years of fossil fuels remaining. A few hundred years should be enough time to perfect nuclear energy.   

      
Maps Showing various UNDERGROUND CARBON CAPTURE STORAGE STRATA LOCATIONS 

The world may need more than 5,000 Skyscrubber electricity plants to head off the worst of Climate Change.  Like cars, airplanes, and ships, Skyscrubber electricity plants would be modular in design similar to today's electricity power plants. Multiple electricity plants could be located at a single site. Such modularity is an economic advantage in several ways. The cost, quality, and reliability of mass-produced machines is hard to beat.
  https://www.biomass.net/Biomass-and-Climate-Change.html 

There are almost unlimited opportunities for completely new greenfield Skyscrubber electricity power plants now that prime underground strata for CCS CO2 sequestration locations have been identified enabling cheap straight-down CO2 disposal via disposal wells located on site property. Since potable water is one of the Allam Cycle's exhaust products, Skyscrubber power plants could be located virtually anywhere there is a CO2 disposal strata and sufficient biomass. This means there is no need for a costly national CO2 disposal grid that may take 20 to 40 years and billions of dollars to complete due to opposition by environmentalists.
Storing CO2 underground improperly could create an unsafe site and is only to be done under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies.

Here is how sequestration could be done without an Allam Cycle engine.


How conventional technology could be used to power a net-negative gas grid. This facility would not be cost-competitive with fossil natural gas and would have to be heavily subsidized.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242263442_PRODUCTION_OF_BIO-METHANE_FROM_WOODY_BIOMASS/link/0046353317400db8bb000000/download

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* The Allam Thermodynamic Cycle Is The Key To Unlocking Negative Emissions From Wood To End Climate Change   

The Watt engine was a commercial success because it had a significant economical advantage over existing engine options.

Toshiba, NET Power, Chicago Bridge & Iron, Exelon, Air Liquide, and 8 Rivers Capital are working together to develop and commercialize the application of supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle technology for efficient emissions-free electric power generation.
The successful running of the Allam Thermodynamic Cycle pilot power plant in La Porte, Texas, provides solid evidence the Climate Change situation has changed for the better.

We can remove the excess CO2 we are putting in the air by making carbon-captured electricity from biomass syngas using the Allam Cycle in BECCS mode. This one change may be the quickest way to roll back Planet Earth's air CO2 to normal.

The Allam Cycle is a very new turbine technology that uses supercritical CO2 instead of steam as its working fluid. As of now, it is only running as a 1/10th size pilot plant in La Porte, Texas, since last November. So far, so good.
     The company:              https://www.netpower.com/technology/     https://www.netpower.com/news/      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vFcbev1TkoU    
    
CarbFix - CO2 Locked in the ground forever. Watch:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zDZmIDbDO0
     Descriptive Articles:     https://www.powermag.com/inside-net-power-gas-power-goes-supercritical/?mypower 

One has to be struck by how different the Allam Cycle engine is from it's long evolutionary line of internal combustion heat engine ancestors such as the Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, Brayton cycle, Lenoir cycle, Leclerc cycle, etc.
Lacking a boiler, it's combustor, connected directly to the turbine, is clearly descended from a liquid fuel rocket engine, on the other hand, it's turbine is a basic single-stage steam power plant turbine exhausting both steam and carbon dioxide into an exotic hotwell.  

From what your author knows about carbon capture at this time, it looks as if the Allam cycle has it all over the other carbon capturing technologies out there - if located above safely sequestable strata, while physically smaller, it can produce a bigger, cheaper, and cleaner carbon capture on a greater variety of fuels.

To be clear about the Allam Cycle engine's capabilities and possibilities: 
The Allam Cycle Engine is a fossil fuel combustion gas machine that runs in the Oxy-fuel Carbon Capture mode. It uses carbon dioxide rather than nitrogen as the combustion diluent. This means it is incapable of producing air-polluting nitrous oxides (NOx). Different versions will enable it to run on the fossil fuels Natural Gas, Oil, Coal, Lignite. It will also run on Biomass Syngas along with carbon-neutral liquid fuels containing sufficient thermal energy content such as ethanol, etc. This fuel flexibility assures every country in the world has forms of local energy (often rooted in coal or biomass) that can power it and thus obtain Climate Change clean electricity at a very economically desirable cost. Smaller than coal powered steam generators, upgrading existing coal power plant buildings with new replacement Allam machinery may be a possibility for cash-strapped countries.

The Allam Cycle electricity power plant will only be available from a single source, Toshiba, in a single size, 300 megaWatts(e), large enough to power 225,000 California standard I.S.O. houses.

This old electrical engineer may be over-enthusiastic because this is the most successful supercritical carbon dioxide power plant he has ever read about, but at this moment, It looks like the world's first power plant with enough megaWatt power and displacement capacity to punch holes in Climate Change simply by burning a gosh-awful amount of wood and shoving the smoke into the ground. The notion that 6,000 of them could gang up on Global Warming and actually suck it out of the air is very appealing.

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The Plasma Torch Wood Gasifier

There may be a missing link:
A wood biomass chip or pellet gasification facility capable of meeting the Allam fuel quality specification and supplying sufficient gas volume for a 300 mW Toshiba Allam facility. At this time there is no wood gasifier large enough to power a 300 mW Allam electricity generating turbine available on the industrial market.
It is conceivable that the gasification system that has already been developed for burning lignite (60 million year old peat - compared to 250 million year old coal) in Allam cycle systems can be further developed for using wood pellets in an Allam BECCS application.

Gasifying ligneous material – in other words wood – to obtain a “lean” gas. Once it has been washed and purified, the lean gas undergoes a process of methanisation to turn it into a “rich” gas, primarily composed of methane, which can then be injected into gas networks.

Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) is biomethane that is upgraded to natural gas pipeline quality standards such that it may blend with, or substitute for, geologic natural gas.

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The other technologies needed to build Skyscrubber power plants

1.    http://plascotechnologies.com/  is offering the biomass processing technology for a version of the Skyscrubber power plant now.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YllIj_bzl5A 
2.   
Also, check out plasma gasifier manufacturer AlterNRG:  http://www.alternrg.com/
               http://www.alternrg.com/waste_to_energy/waste-to-liquids/ 

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How many trees will it take to remove 100 million tons of CO2 from the air per day (all sites combined)?

                 
If you want to capture large volumes of air's CO2 carbon quickly, you can't beat wood biomass. 200 one-million ton trains a day would stop Climate Change.
 The nascent Toshiba-built Allam Cycle 300 megaWatt power plant is big electricity. Instead of a train-a-day of coal, it will be at least train-a-day of green wood pellets or chips to each power plant.
The world made 23,816 TW-h (TerraWatt-Hours) or 23,816,000,000 MW-h (MegaWatt-hours) of electricity in 2017.
How many 300 MW Toshiba-Allam power plants burning how many tons of green wood a year do we need to make that much electricity?
 

A CO2 emissions reference could be the amount of CO2 emitted by all sources on Planet Earth on an annually averaged day - about 100 million tons per day - as one "Emission Day".

This implies having a world full of Allam BECCS electricity power plants, i.e., more than 6,000 to sequester 100 million tons of tree-captured CO2 per day, makes scrubbing away an airborne gas contaminant (CO2) as big as Global Warming feasible.  

A recent tree census indicates there may be 3 trillion trees in the world. That's 3 thousand billion trees. A billion is a thousand million. Once you have an efficient way to store air's CO2 safely forever underground, storing CO2 forever in trees above ground becomes a very bad idea and far more dangerous. Eventually the CO2 will escape back into the air and make Climate Change even worse. We have to think of biomass such as trees as vegetables, not hallowed repositories of captured CO2. A map published in Sept 2015 NATURE magazine reveals that the global number of trees is approximately 3.04 trillion, an order of magnitude higher than the previous accepted estimate.

At some point a tree's CO2 gathering performance reaches it's maximum and begins to decline. It will eventually die and become mankind's climate enemy, its decaying CO2 returning to the air as surely as if it were burning.

Trees that have reached optimal CO2-gathering growth should be harvested immediately and replaced with vigorously growing young trees to continue the process of gathering as much CO2 from the air as rapidly as possible. The ground minerals recovered in the gasification clean-up process will be recycled as fertilizers and redistributed in the forest farms (stands).

The harvested trees, along with other available biomass (perhaps city garbage, sewage, agwaste, forest trimmings, etc.) would then be pelletized and their molecules broken down by a electrical plasma torch that makes Sun-hot heat.  Heat this hot breaks the atomic bonds that hold molecules together, creating free carbon atoms and other atoms that can be sorted out and reassembled into syngas (synthetic methane gas) fuel for the Allam electricity power plant and remineralizing fertilizer for tree farms.

Getting the job of building thousands of Skyscrubber facilities done quickly: Once the world realizes it needs thousands of Allam BECCS systems, everyone will want them NOW. In times of emergency, manufacture of critical technologies equipment can be licensed to multiple capable, but competing companies to quickly produce thousands of identical machines simultaneously. Led by Franklin Roosevelt, the United States did a masterful job of turning the Free World into the "Arsenal of Democracy" during World War II through cross-licensing of war-related patents and other technologies. The United States is again in the position to, this time, invent, produce, and manufacture the tools that will save the world from Climate Change.

The United States alone built 6,768 full-size ocean-going ships and about 300,000 airplanes over 4 years during World War II. With the Allam Cycle electricity power plant, bringing Climate Change under control is a much smaller task.

There is no reason the same wartime crisis production strategies cannot be used to quickly end the Climate Change Crisis.

Cities = power plants.   Thousands of cities, thousands of Skyscrubbers.

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ELECTRICITY CARBON TAXES and CARBON CAPTURE and SEQUESTRATION INCENTIVES
Information about the government's different Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Acts
(Courtesy of Climate Change Working Group):

First, here's a link to the bill itself: https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/763 
Second, for anyone without the time or interest to read the entire bill, a link to a "road map" of the bill's contents, so the most relevant sections can be found with some ease:  
https://community.citizensclimatelobby.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Section-by-Section-Analysis-Energy-Innovation-Act-2019.pdf 
Third, here's a link to Citizen's Climate Lobby's website about the bill, which also allows a reader to see who has already endorsed the bill and what the press is saying about it. It includes an endorsement tool: 
https://energyinnovationact.org/ 
Finally, for anyone wanting to compare this bill to other carbon pricing bills, an assessment that compares this bill (sponsored by Rep. Ted Deutch of Florida and therefore called the Deutch bill in the analysis) to others:   https://energypolicy.columbia.edu/research/commentary/how-bipartisan-energy-innovation-and-carbon-dividend-act-compares-other-carbon-tax-proposals

All these carbon tax fees raise a very serious question:
Q. How much per ton of CO2 is going to be refunded by the government to the operators of the above Skyscrubber power plants to establish and operate a carbon dioxide disposal well on their own property?

A. Deutch bill: This section amends the Tax Code (Title 26) by adding the following subsections: Subtitle L - "Carbon Dividends and Carbon Fee", Sec. 9906 - Carbon Capture and Sequestration:

"Provides a refund of Carbon Fee paid when qualified carbon dioxide is captured and sequestered in a safe and permanent manner. Requires establishment of sound criteria for safe and permanent sequestration. Only CO2 from covered fuels, and only rebate for amount likely to remain sequestered."

- - - In the United States there are now 2 big carbon capture incentives: A recently expanded federal tax credit for captured CO2 and California’s new law requiring 100% of its electricity come from carbon-free sources by 2045.

In the U.S., carbon capture has led to the formation of extraordinary alliances. In 2018, a tax credit known as 45Q—so named for the relevant provision in the law—was revised to provide higher incentives for CCS with support from congressional lawmakers of both parties, big oil and gas, industry, and environmentalists. Over time, it will ramp up to $50 per metric ton of carbon stored geologically and $35 per metric ton of carbon stored through enhanced oil recovery, provided projects commence construction by the end of 2023. - Brad Page, Bloomberg Environment, Posted May 13, 2019, 6:00 AM

The LCFS and CCS Protocol: An Overview for Policymakers and Project Developers - California - pdf.  If building the above Skyscrubber Power Plant interests you, you need this document.

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          How To Produce The Negative CO2 Combustion Fuels Necessary To End the 100 Million Tons of CO2 We Are Adding to the Air Every Day

                      

                             2016_billion_ton_report_12.2.16_0.pdf (400+ Pages)                                          Methanol - The Basic Chemical and Energy Feedstock of the Future.pdf
                                                                                                                    https://www.chemicals-technology.com/projects/george-olah-renewable-methanol-plant-iceland/                    

                                

Re-equipping our mobile fuels industries for climate-neutral-only vehicle energy products will, along with Skyscrubbing, eventually roll back Climate Change.

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Our Climate Change Outlook

                   
CO2 accounts for 77% of the greenhouse gases. Methane 14% (mostly natural gas), Nitrous Oxide 8% (mostly cars and trucks), and Freons 1%.

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"Technological fixes are often far simpler, and therefore cheaper, than the doomsayers could have imagined." -  ( From Prologue )

One objective of this website is to communicate that the Climate Change crisis resembles the horseshit crisis described in the Prologue's story. 

Here’s an analogy that Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, who helped compile some of the climate research data for the World Bank, likes to use.
"Take the human body. If your temperature rises 2°C, you have a significant fever. If it rises 4°C or 6°C you can die. It’s not a linear change."

https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/usda-scientist-quits-claims-trump-administration-tried-to-bury-his-climate-study/ar-AAFnNNn?li=BBnb7Kz 

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ThorCon - The nuclear Ace up our sleeves. One of best of many third-generation nuclear electricity power plants ideas being explored.

It is clear the Allam Cycle will extend the use of fossil fuels until they run out - perhaps 100 to 200 years. 

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  Disclaimer: This website is energy talk by an engineer exploring Climate Change's opportunities for creating a clean combustion fuel future - not professional engineering advice.