,    and 
Minimizing Climate Change by Replacing Fossil Fuels with Equivalent Biosynfuels.

Climate Change is a chemistry problem.              Guidance for Upgrading Our Energy Systems in the face of Climate Change, Rising Energy Demand, and Legacy Infrastructure.
Explaining the above sketch.          
Explain "Biomass" and "Carbon-neutral"  >           The Carbon-neutral Syngas Cycle  >

Replacing The Fire - Not The Fireplace - slides   (Much quicker and cheaper than rebuilding everything.)

 Web Site Contents  >                                1. Replacing Coal  >       2. Replacing Oil  >       3. Replacing Gas  >



Climate Change is likely unstoppable. But it can be minimized.


Energy Parks: The Prerequisite For Minimizing Climate Change.
The United States could have a Clean Energy Park near every city large enough to have garbage and sewage collection and disposal systems.

The electrical utility industry is in a "no growth" situation. If it wants to grow, it will have to grow into oil and gas' turf. Here is how it can be done.
This is also an excellent way for power companies to profit from the increasingly severe "Duck Curve" electricity grid misbehavior caused by wind and solar.
To get up to speed quickly on carbon capture from a credible source: Google, then download the pdf "  Post-combustion Carbon Capture - Leading Mature Technology  "

It is possible the world's oil and heating gas companies could simply phase in biosynfuels and phase out their fossil fuel products.
(Oil companies phase different fuels in and out constantly.  Think no-lead gasoline, E-85 ethanol, biodiesel, fracking, etc.)  (Various Fuels.)           Old-time Energy Park
Biosynfuels, plus carbon captured or nuclear electricity, would sidestep the time and cost to stop Climate Change by any other means.
The prerequisite for this scenario is the availability of massive amounts of very hot heat - either carbon captured oil or natural gas, or nuclear to manufacture biosynfuels.
The intent is to use up the world's remaining fossil fuels in carbon captured facilities to make clean "drop-in equivalent" biosynfuels. When we run out of fossil fuels, there's always nuclear. 

There is sufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid-fuel needs if the energy and hydrogen inputs for biomass-to-fuel processing plants comes from other sources.

Coal energy has been made obsolete by nuclear energy since about 1960 but little has been done to make the upgrade from coal to nuclear complete.
We can replace oil and natural gas immediately by converting existing unneeded coal power plants into carbon captured oil or natural gas powered energy parks. Nuclear can wait.
There may be 50,000 small coal power plant sites  globally that have the "right stuff" - i.e., nearby natural gas or depleted oil patches - to be candidates for Energy Parks.

Energy Parks: Sustainable Fossil Oil and Gas Energy Applications for Biosynfuels.
- Converting Fossil Oil Energy, Fossil Natural Gas Energy, and eventually, Nuclear Energy into Clean Biosynfuel Energy. - 

1. Carbon captured natural gas powered biosynfuels manufacturing.  
Check it out.  >
2. Carbon captured oil powered biosynfuels manufacturing for those parts of the world where natural gas is unavailable.  Check it out.  >
3. Eventually, the economic advantages of nuclear powered biosynfuels manufacturing will make it the dominant technology.  Check it out.  >

Where are these Energy Parks?  All around us. They are the small coal power plants that are being shut down.

A Carbon Captured, Natural Gas Powered, Electricity and Biosynfuels Energy Park
Building An Energy Park  >

Dr. Forsberg's slides show how: Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Slides - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf    Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Paper - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf
There is sufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid-fuel needs if the energy and hydrogen inputs for biomass-to-fuel processing plants are provided by gas, oil or advanced nuclear energy
Biofuels - Energy - US Supply Sources vs. Demand Sectors - Reversed - 2017 Energy Parks - 960.jpg

*Carbon-neutral means switching from the temperature-increasing global warming carbon found in fossil fuels from the ground to the temperature-neutral biomass carbon found in the carbon that plants gather from the air. 

Carbon is an essential ingredient in common solid, liquid, and gaseous combustion fuels.  We need to CARBON NEUTRALIZE the world's oil and heating gas fuels by replacing the Climate Changing ingredient - fossil fuel carbon - with Climate Neutral biofuel carbon harvested from biomass.  To a large extent, the only other ingredient in most fuels is hydrogen, which we can easily extract from water.

There is no reason we can't start on this largest aspect of Climate Change mitigation immediately and let the windmill and solar panel folks duke it out with the nuclear folks for the smallest slice of the Climate Change mitigation pie.


Energy is the master resource.   Without energy nothing happens.   The more energy we have, the better off we are.

Perspective: "The rising carbon dioxide footprint may be troublesome, but it is a side effect of the creation of immense benefits." - Peter Allitt, quoted by M.J. Kelly.
Energy is the master resource. Without energy nothing happens. The more energy we have, the better off we are. The United States is a 10,000 Watt society; Mexico, 2,000 W; Haiti, 500W.

Executive summary:

Two senior scientists with chemistry backgrounds, Dr. George A. Olah and Dr. Charles W. Forsberg, suggest making CO2-neutral biosynfuels by using air's CO2 extracted from plants and supplying the processing energy from either nuclear (or fossil) sources.  Both scientists cover the subject extremely well but in different ways. The image above depicts this idea using nuclear processing energy, showing Climate Change's growth stopped and possibly reversed.

Fossil fuel fires will disappear one way or another in the long run. Most of civilization's far future electrical and heat energy will be supplied by a
nuclear-hydrogen-biomass system.  Our heat will originate as nuclear fission, be stored in CO2-neutral biomass fuel molecules manufactured from air's CO2, and be released as it is now - as fire, as needed.  Nuclear heat is the only practical thermal alternative to fossil fuel heat. Energy manufacture on a global scale will take many nuclear reactors and substantial amounts of nuclear fuel.  Having unlimited nuclear heat changes everything. The energy strategy could be as lavish as necessary with nuclear heat and as frugal as possible with biomass's carbon-neutral carbon.  A billion tons of biomass carbon per year may be available in the U.S. alone for gasification by plasma pyrolysis for use as CO2 feedstock for efficiently synthesizing CO2-neutral methanols, etc.   Fortunately, we have all the nuclear fuel we will ever need, several better ways to dispose of nuclear's waste, and, best of all, all the technologies to make it all happen quickly already exist.

Caveat: Careful reading of their statement is suggested. - NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Division on Earth and Life Studies Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. 

The technology being explored on this web site is intended to STOP the PROGRESSION of CLIMATE CHANGE, not reduce the intensity of Climate Change.

Put simply, you must first stop something before you can reverse it. Stopping Climate Change is a prerequisite to rolling back Climate change.  THEN we can set about rolling back Climate Change by reducing the air's Greenhouse Gas levels down from the current 400 parts per million to their historic average of about 250 parts per million.

Think about it.

Neither Dr. Olah nor Dr. Forsberg have any connection to this web site.
Your author, an EE, is working to stop Climate Change by identifying and describing to the public the industrial equipment and companies he thinks can make the above vision a reality.
Retired engineers build model railroad layouts. I elected to build a Climate Change web site instead since few Climate Change authors have engineering backgrounds and it often shows.
It is important the reader keeps in mind this web site is an engineer's scrapbook, not a blog or a magazine.

Why all the fuss about the world's warming perhaps 2C?  Like Planet Earth, your body is an environment for living cells that depend upon it for sustenance.
Heres an analogy that Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, who helped compile some of the climate research data for the World Bank, likes to use.
"Take the human body. If your temperature rises 2C, you have a significant fever. If it rises 4C or 6C your organs begin to fail and you can die.


Energy Worlds  >

1.  What would a modern industrialized world powered only by biomass equivalent biosynfuels energy look like?

2.  What would a modern industrialized world powered only by Wind, Water, and Solar energy look like?

3. What would a "Clean and Doable Liquid Fission (LF) Energy Roadmap for Powering Our World" look like?

4. Renewables vs. Carbon-neutrals vs. Nuclear?, or, should it be, Nuclear + Carbon-neutrals + Renewables?


Disclaimer: This web site is energy talk by an engineer exploring Climate Change educational concepts, not professional engineering advice. contact