StoppingClimateChange.com               Directory    This website is about designing and building thousands of modern technology BECCS power plants to be used to roll back Climate Change.    Prolog                     

 You are looking at the recently-invented Allam Thermodynamic Cycle electricity plant. It is designed to burn the fossil fuels NATURAL GAS and COAL harmlessly.
It liquefies its natural gas or coal CO2 emissions and pumps the liquid directly into deep underground CO2 disposal wells to eventually become limestone.  No Smokestack. 
NO CLIMATE CHANGE.
This newly patented technology could mean a quick end for wind and solar if it proves to be a practical path for the fossil fuel industry to retain their hold on the world's primary energies.  A similar design.

IF POWERED by synthetic natural gas made from WOOD PELLETS, it will REMOVE CO2 FROM THE AIR while making electricity.  A practical way to roll back Climate Change that may take 50 to 200 years to repair Planet Earth's air by reducing air's CO2 content from 415 ppm (now) to 280 ppm (end of last Ice Age). This will cause Earth's extra Climate Changing heat to radiate out into space once more.
How? Trees remove Climate Changing CO2 from the air to grow. Wood's captured CO2 can be converted into synthetic natural gas fuel to power Allam Cycle electricity plants
REPAIRING THE AIR.

Why Wood?  The CO2 molecule is made of one carbon atom and 2 oxygen atoms. 1 Kg of carbon on complete combustion will produce 3.67 Kg. of CO2. Wood is heterogeneous and the exact amount of carbon in 1 Kg of dry wood will vary depending on the species of wood, age of wood etc.
1. It is reported that 1 Kg of wood contains about 450 to 500 gm of Carbon. This means 1 Kg of wood is holding about 1.65 to 1.80 Kg of CO2. This is how wood or forest act as carbon sink. Similarly, burning of 1 Kg of wood containing 500 gm of carbon will generate 1.65 to 1.80 Kg of CO2 and 17,070 btu of heat.
2. Heat from wood Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) costs more than heat from natural gas but the 60% gas efficiency of the Allam Cycle power plant is almost twice that of a typical 35% efficient fossil natural gas power plant. European coal power plants are burning U.S. wood pellets to keep their CO2 emissions low.
3. Metropolitan Solid Waste (MSW) i.e., Garbage, is being used to make syngas to power small 50 megaWatt syngas power plants, worldwide to minimize landfill waste. Similar MSW syngas/SNG plants could add their outputs via short local gas mains to base power a large 300 megaWatt Allam Cycle plant.

This website is about powering Allam cycle power plants with wood.  A few thousand Allam plants would be sufficient to repair the world's air.

It has proven to be much more difficult than was first thought to persuade the world's energy producers and users to decarbonize (i.e., stop using fossil fuels).  Decarbonization is not optional.
This Website is suggesting a way we can begin reversing Climate Change's growth now while waiting for the world's energy producers to completely decarbonize. See Also:  https://phys.org/news/2019-12-climate-shot-tolerable-future.html 
 

The Big CO2 Picture

(Below) This is how an Allam Cycle BECCS power plant could both make electricity and pull Climate Change out of the air, disposing of it deep underground.

Air's CO2, captured by trees as they grow, can be permanently recovered and locked underground forever by BECCS power plants. If trees decay on the forest floor, their CO2 returns to the air to make Climate Change worse.

Job #1: 10 billion tons of CO2 need to be removed from the air every year by 2050 and double that by 2100.
U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine - (quoted by Fred Krupp and Ernest J. Moniz in their article: "Cutting climate pollution isn't enough - we also need carbon removal.") (9/23/2019) 

Planet Earth currently has about 3 trillion trees and might support an additional trillion. (In the United States, a trillion is a thousand billion and a billion is a thousand million.)  It's essential we plant as many trees as possible immediately all over the world because we will need them for removing Climate Change from the air when the last of the fossil fuel decarbonizations has been completed and the installation and startup of the first several hundred Allam BECCS power plants has been completed. The Allam power plants will first be running on natural gas and coal converted to synthetic natural gas, switching over to wood BECCS mode as the wood gasification equipment is installed. This could be as soon as 2030 to 2040 so the first Climate Change removal trees would be only 20 years old at most. After that, perhaps an annual rotating crop of trees or equivalent energy plants such as switchgrass will be needed for over 100 years.
California has biomass electricity power plants that consume 1 ton (900 Kg) of woody biomass per hour for each megaWatt-hour of electricity produced.  So, a 300 megaWatt Allam BECCS power plant could consume as much as 24 hours x 300 tons or 7,200 tons of woody biomass per day. 
1 Kg of wood holds about 1.65 to 1.80 Kg of CO2. A 10-year old typical small tree weighs 1,800 to 4,500 Kg. 1 ppm CO2 = 2.12 Gtonne carbon or 7.76 Gtonne CO2. (IPCC and Gilbert Masters). 1 Tonne (a Metric Ton) = 1,000 kg. 1 G (Giga) = 1 Billion.
To remove enough CO2 from the air to go back to the end of the last Ice Age we would need to remove from the air: 415 ppm CO2 - 280 ppm CO2 = 135 ppm CO2.  135 ppm x 7.76 Gtonne CO2 or 1,047 Gtonne CO2 or about 1 trillion 2 ton trees.

BECCS is a combination of wood gasification and catalytic synthesis chemistry technologies. 
Wind, hydro, nuclear, coal, oil, natural gas, lignite, are chemicals that can't be used to ROLL BACK Climate Change.

Just as a world with thousands of coal burning power plants was a major cause of Climate Change,
 a decarbonized world, along with thousands of biomass-burning BECCS power plants, would be a way to completely roll back Climate Change. *

About BECCS, an air CO2 removal technology, considered by some to be a possible Climate Change savior.
(
BECCS = Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage. BECCS is a new technology which extracts CO2 from biomass (plants) and stores it geologically, thus removing it from the atmosphere)   https://www.carbonbrief.org/BECCS-the-story-of-climate-change's-saviour-technology

BECCS technology has the potential to take a giant leap forward. A more powerful potential BECCS tool is the newly-patented Allam power plant. In large numbers, it appears be ideal for rolling back Climate Change to 350 ppm.
Once you begin to reduce the strength of Planet Earth's CO2 'heat blanket', the heat it has been holding in will radiate out into the cold of space and Climate Change will begin to reverse.
An Allam Cycle demonstration power plant has been running for over a year (since November 2018) in La Porte, Texas. It is a 1/10 size, 30 megaWatt pilot power plant. Toshiba will be building the full-size 300 megaWatt commercial version in 2022.
Part rocket, part stationary power plant, part nothing like any engine that's ever run before, each of it's emissions comes out a different pipe. It's working fluid is supercritical CO2. If you know about power plants, you'll want to know about this one.

Beyond the primitive 1930s technology today's BECCS facilities are using, a second-generation BECCS facility could be the 300 megaWatt Toshiba-Allam BECCS power plant.
*Compare*
Early BECCS approaches to carbon capture applications can actually increase air pollution and are not efficient at reducing carbon in the atmosphere, according to research by Mark Z. Jacobson, in a 10/25/19 Stanford University paper.(5) 

Videos and articles describing and explaining the natural gas, coal, and lignite versions of the recently invented Allam Thermodynamic Cycle power plant being suggested by this website for BECCS applications:

     The Allam Cycle Enginehttps://www.netpower.com/technology/     https://www.netpower.com/news/      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vFcbev1TkoU    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3pzbtbDRKvU   
     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=keDJQa2MyME  

  
    CarbFix - CO2 Locked in the ground forever. Watch:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zDZmIDbDO0
     Descriptive Articles:   
            https://www.powermag.com/inside-net-power-gas-power-goes-supercritical/?mypower                       

     See also Toshiba Energy Systems & Solutions Corporation: https://www.toshiba-energy.com/en/ 
"Technology for the Hydrogen Society"

A BECCS version of the Allam Cycle power plant would burn wood that has been converted into synthetic natural gas.

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Doing It

Practical, purchasable, BECCS carbon-negative power plants to roll back Climate Change could be built worldwide.

Allam Cycle power plants have already been engineered for burning natural gas, coal, and lignite. A wood (biomass) burning Allam Cycle BECCS power plant is what is needed to remove Climate Changing CO2 from the air.

There are almost unlimited opportunities for locating completely new greenfield electricity power plants now that underground strata for CCS CO2 storage locations have been identified enabling cheap straight-down CO2 disposal via disposal wells located on plant site property. Allam power plants could be located virtually anywhere there is a CO2 disposal strata underground and sufficient biomass available by truck or rail.

EARLY ESTIMATES: 1,997,280 tons CO2 sequestered per power plant per year. 3,163 tons wood per day. That's about 790 4-ton full-grown trees per day or 288,350 trees per year.

2020 Break-Even: Number of power plants necessary for 35 billion tons of CO2 sequestered per year: 17,523. Number of of 4 ton trees needed per year: 5,052,757,050 - a little over 5 billion. The world has 3 trillion trees, a trillion is a thousand billion.

Advanced BECCS plant operators can sell: 1, Carbon-negative Electricity, 2, 'Blue' hydrogen for vehicle fuels made using the CO2 disposal well, and 3, excess carbon-neutral pipeline gas.

Advanced features over first generation BECCS:
 1. Much better fuel efficiency. 2. On-site CO2 disposal well for cheapest CO2 disposal. 3. On-site Natural Gas "Blue" Hydrogen Reformer for abundant, cheap hydrogen. 4. On-site Natural Gas backup for electricity generation. 5. Up to 1/2 million gallons of fresh water per day as a combustion product. 6. Everything carbon-negative. 7. No environmental emissions.

                                                          
                                                           Possible Cash Flows For The First Ten Wood BECCS Fuel Processing Systems                                              G65 MSW (Metropolitan Solid Waste) Plasma Unit at Tees Valley Unit 1              

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U.S. and Global BECCS CO2 Storage Zones

See CarbFix: CO2 Locked in the ground forever. Watch:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zDZmIDbDO0   (Skip the ad someone inserted in front of the video.)
If water is added to the liquid CO2 as it is pumped into the ground, the CO2 will turn into limestone after a few years. This locks the CO2 underground forever.

         
Maps Showing various UNDERGROUND CARBON CAPTURE STORAGE STRATA LOCATIONS 
See:  "Geospatial analysis of near-term potential for carbon-negative bioenergy in the United States" by Ejeong Baik, et al.  https://www.pnas.org/content/115/13/3290  (pdf)
Locations without carbon disposal will have to rely on renewables
- wind, solar - for their electricity.

The United States' Carbon Capture and Storage Situation
 
"The United States has the technological potential to offset roughly only a decade’s worth of its current CO2 emissions through biological sequestration (i.e., planting trees, etc.,) but a few hundred years’ worth of emissions through carbon dioxide capture and sequestration." - from Congressional Budget Office "The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States, 2007" - Summary, page 2. 

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Chewing away at Climate Change might be quicker, cheaper, and easier than we think.
Electrical grids enable BECCS electricity plants located over CO2 disposal strata to be distant from population centers.


Over 30,000 illuminated cities mean over 30,000 nearby coal power plants. 20,000 Allam BECCS power plants could, over 50 to 200 years, roll Climate Change back to 280 ppm or less.
We could build BECCS power plants next door to existing unneeded coal power plant property to roll back Climate Change at minimal delay and cost.

Legacy Coal Power Plants are already connected to electrical grids.        
A LIVING EXAMPLE that happens to be located over an EXCELLENT CO2 DISPOSAL STRATA:  https://michiganhub.com/ 
Nearly 300 coal-fired power plants have been "retired" since 2010 in the U.S. alone, according to the Sierra Club.

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"Technological fixes are often far simpler, and therefore cheaper, than the doomsayers could have imagined." -  ( From Prologue )

One objective of this website is to communicate that - in many ways - the current Climate Change crisis resembles the world's early 1900s horseshit crisis described in this website's 'Prologue' story.
You can't see or smell them, but your car's 200+ horsepower engine is capable of making appallingly large amounts of CO2 turds when you stand on the accelerator. 

Consider this: To a limited extent, until the air's CO2 is rolled back to Planet Earth's normal 280 ppm, wood should be the new coal.
Interesting bunch of papers about how fast Planet Earth is picking up extra heat:  http://4hiroshimas.com/#References 

Here’s an analogy that Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, who helped compile some of the climate research data for the World Bank, likes to use:
"Take the human body. If your temperature rises 2°C, you have a significant fever. If it rises 4°C or 6°C you can die. It’s not a linear change."

Business unusual: the shift to “carbon neutral”:   Becoming Carbon-Neutral and Carbon-Negative isn't a fad anymore.
https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/business-unusual-shift-carbon-neutral 
Microsoft recently pledged it will become CARBON-NEGATIVE by 2030, plus remove ALL the
CO2 the company has put into the air since it was founded in 1975 by 2050, thus removing its carbon footprint.
BP has announced a “net zero” emissions plan. 2/12/2020