Electricity from Nuclear.   Fire from Synthetic Biofuels.

   Climate Change is a chemistry problem.             Guidance for Upgrading Our Energy Systems in the face of Climate Change, Rising Energy Demand, and Legacy Infrastructure.
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The diagram below is the idea above.  Stopping Climate Change faster by upgrading existing energy systems.
Nuclear is not just for electricity. Nuclear can solve most of the climate change problem.

Using advanced nuclear fuels to make advanced synthetic CO2-neutral biofuels to replace fossil fuels.

The Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass Energy System - slides

Dr. Forsberg's slides show how: Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Slides - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf    Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Paper - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf
There is sufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid-fuel needs if the energy and hydrogen inputs for biomass-to-fuel processing plants are provided by advanced nuclear energy.


Energy is the master resource.   Without energy nothing happens.   The more energy we have, the richer we are.

Perspective: "The rising carbon dioxide footprint may be troublesome, but it is a side effect of the creation of immense benefits." - Peter Allitt, quoted by M.J. Kelly.
Energy is the master resource. Without energy nothing happens. The more energy we have, the richer we are. The United States is a 10,000 Watt society; Mexico, 2,000 W; Haiti, 500W.

better reason than Climate Change to decarbonize our energy: 
We need the advanced nuclear fuels and advanced synthetic biofuels that are cheaper, better, more powerful than fossil:  NEW FUELS  >

Executive summary:
Two senior scientists with chemistry backgrounds, Dr. George A. Olah and Dr. Charles W. Forsberg, suggest making CO2-neutral biofuels by using air's CO2 extracted from plants.  Both scientists cover the subject extremely well but in different ways. The image above depicts this idea, showing Climate Change's growth stopped and possibly reversed.

Fossil fuel fires will disappear one way or another in the long run. Most of civilization's future electrical and heat energy will be supplied by a
nuclear-hydrogen-biomass system.  Our heat will originate as nuclear fission, be stored in CO2-neutral biomass fuel molecules manufactured from air's CO2, and be released as it is now - as fire, as needed.  Nuclear heat is the only practical thermal alternative to fossil fuel heat. Energy manufacture on a global scale will take many nuclear reactors and substantial amounts of nuclear fuel.  Having unlimited nuclear heat changes everything. The energy strategy could be as lavish as necessary with nuclear heat and as frugal as possible with biomass's carbon-neutral carbon.  A billion tons of biomass carbon per year may be available in the U.S. alone for gasification by plasma pyrolysis for use as CO2 feedstock for synthesizing CO2-neutral methanols, etc.   Fortunately, we have all the nuclear fuel we will ever need, several better ways to dispose of nuclear's waste, and, best of all, the technologies to make it all happen quickly already exist.

Neither Dr. Olah nor Dr. Forsberg have any connection to this web site.
Your author, an EE, is working to stop Climate Change by identifying and describing to the public the industrial equipment and companies he thinks can make the above vision a reality.
Retired engineers build model railroad layouts. I elected to build a Climate Change web site instead since few Climate Change authors have engineering backgrounds and it often shows.
It is important the reader keeps in mind this web site is an engineer's scrapbook, not a blog or a magazine.

Why all the fuss about the world warming perhaps 2C?  Your body is an environment for living cells that depend upon it for sustenance. Planet Earth is also made up of living organisms.
Heres an analogy that Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, who helped compile some of the climate research data for the World Bank, likes to use.
"Take the human body. If your temperature rises 2C, you have a significant fever. If it rises 4C or 6C your organs begin to fail and you can die.


1.  What would a modern industrialized world powered only by Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass energy look like?

This web site's rough order-of-magnitude guesstimate for ALL global energy - both electricity AND heat - for the world by 2050:
  2,000 large 1,500 megaWatt water cooled and/or molten salt cooled (also called "Liquid Fission") nuclear reactors for mega-city electricity.
5,000 500 mW(e) ThorCon coal-boiler-to-nuclear conversion steam generators to quickly and cheaply fix the 2% of large coal power plants that are making 30% of all Climate Change.
300 "ThorConIsles" barge mounted nuclear power plants for coastal populations in second and third world countries to preempt the building of over 2,000 new coal power plants.
150,000 medium 300 to 25 mW molten salt cooled nuclear reactors for smaller city electricity.
  100,000 small 50 to 5 mW helium cooled very high temperature pebble bed nuclear reactors (VHTR) for both carbon-neutral liquid fuel and gas heating fuel synthesis processes.
  One or more islands in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) plus the Sub-seabed Solution for isolation of radioactive worn-out nuclear reactors, nuclear barge power plants, waste nuclear fuel.
  5,000 nuclear powered sea water desalinators for both cities and agriculture.
  Miscellaneous small sources of intermittent wind, solar, and hydro electricity.
  600+ VHTR nuclear-powered carbon-neutral combustion biofuel refineries evolved from  today's oil refineries
 producing unlimited volumes of "drop-in" gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and heating gas.  These would be synthetic combustion fuels beyond carbon-neutral fossil fuels that are either half as expensive or twice as powerful.
For the United States, the "Billion Ton Biomass" program needs to be dedicated to supplying biomass to the nuclear powered carbon-neutral combustion fuel refineries - not burning it.  
Object Total: 262,900 - That's 262 thousand, 900, folks!
 The more objects, the less likely it will happen, the more expensive and less reliable it will be.
Reference:  World electric power plant reference:  Perhaps the most complete database of it's type.

  Oh, yes, and the progression of Climate Change would be stopped and perhaps partially reversed.

2.  What would a modern industrialized world powered only by Wind, Water, and Solar energy look like?

Stanford University is looking at what it might take to provide all global energy using only wind, water, and solar power:
2.5 million 5-mW wind turbines (60/40 mix of on- and off-shore) (37%)
  409,000 0.75-mW wave generators (0.5%)
  935 100-mW geothermal plants (0.7%)
  1,058 1.300 -mW hydroelectric plants (4%)
  30,000 1-mW tidal turbines (0.06%)
  1.8 billion 5-kW residential rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems (15%)
  75 million 100-kW commercial PV systems (12%)
  250,000 50-mW solar PV plants (21%)
  21,500 100-mW concentrating solar power (CSP) plants with thermal storage (10%)
  13,000 100-mW CSP plants with thermal storage (additional for grid support)
  85,000 50-mW solar thermal storage plants (for direct heating) 
Object Total: 1,878,310,493 - That's 1 billion, 878 million, 310 thousand, 493, folks!  The more objects, the less likely it will happen, the more expensive and less reliable it will be.
Reference: 199 page pdf draft:  [].This is a valuable work-in-progress, well worth studying if only to learn the mindset of those opposed to nuclear. 

This gives you a little insight into the unmitigated stupidity of windmills and solar cells: 

3. For a THIRD scenario check out: 


Disclaimer: This web site is energy talk by an engineer exploring Climate Change educational concepts, not professional engineering advice. contact