Skyscrubber.com  or  StoppingClimateChange.com                                       Sitemap        Introduction

The Allam Cycle Power Plant Can Be Used To Suck Massive Volumes Of CO2 Out Of The Air.
When used to power a Biomass Energy Carbon Capture and Sequestration (BECCS) Carbon-neutral Fuel Factory.
 
The world's oil industry can do a competent job of getting us to high-volume Direct Air Capture of CO2 before mid-century.
The Allam Cycle changes the Climate Change challenge for the better.  For now, everyone has to update their Climate Change thinking.
Consuming the excess CO2 we've already put in the air to make electricity and safe liquid biofuels is the key to ending Climate Change forever.
To have an even chance of avoiding the worst of Climate Change, we have to have a net-negative annual reduction of as much CO2 per year as we have been adding per year since the beginning of World War II - about 30 billion tons of CO2 per year.
The Allam Cycle is very new technology and, as of now, only running in 1/10th size pilot plant form. But it looks to be a rational professional design giving much thought to the economics of energy.
     The company:              https://www.netpower.com/technology/    
     https://www.netpower.com/news/           https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vFcbev1TkoU          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zDZmIDbDO0
     Articles:                       https://www.powermag.com/inside-net-power-gas-power-goes-supercritical/?mypower          supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) cycles

HOW?:  Electrify everything possible with Allam biomass fuel electricity. Use any extra biomass to replace as much oil and natural gas fuels as possible with equivalent net-zero CO2 biosynfuels.
WHO?:
  The world's oil industry has the ability to efficiently produce net-zero CO2 liquid combustion fuels and gases. They have the Science, Technology, Equipment, Infrastructure, Resources, and Motivated People. 


How it would work:

What we have here is a system that can send all (or some portion thereof) of air's CO2 back to the air via carbon-neutral liquid combustion fuels, plus all (or some portion thereof) of air's CO2 into underground carbon capture disposal sequestration. With a large number of such systems operating in concert, we can, over time, fine-tune the amount of Climate Changing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air to whatever amount we consider optimum.

When we discuss CO2, we are really speaking about the carbon component of carbon dioxide - CO2.  A portion of the CO2 now in the air belongs there, a portion does not.

We have to begin to think of biomass and trees as vegetables, not hallowed repositories of captured CO2. Plants and trees are very efficient at gathering and storing CO2 from the air as cellulose (wood). When a tree is full-grown, it stops gathering CO2 from the air to support its growth. It's value in the fight against Climate Change has ended. It will eventually die and become mankind's climate enemy, emitting CO2 into the air as surely as if it were a burning fossil fuel.

Trees that have reached full growth must be harvested and replaced with small young trees to continue the process of gathering CO2 from the air.

The harvested trees and other waste biomass are then pelletized and broken down from cellulose molecules to carbon, hydrogen, and other atoms by a plasma torch that makes 6,000 degree heat. Heat this hot overcomes the atomic bonds of molecules creating free carbon, hydrogen, and other atoms to make raw syngas (synthetic gas) ready for cleaning up and purification. A primitive form of synthetic gas used to be made by heating coal to supply gas for gas lighting and heating in cities. This gas was called "Town Gas or City Gas". Most large cities went through a "gaslight" phase in the late 1800s before the invention of electricity.

Using various catalysts, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) refinery joins the carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms to form hydrocarbon fuels, beginning with very simple molecules such as methane (synthetic natural gas) [ assemble GTL fuel molecules ] and much longer, larger, hydrocarbon molecules such as synthetic oil [ GTL ].

A portion of the cleaned syngas - now as clean as natural gas - is taken from the plasma torch's output and used to make electricity in the Allam Cycle fossil fuel technology power plant. One of the exhaust streams of the Allam Cycle plant is pure high pressure liquid carbon dioxide ready for injection into underground sequestration (disposal) strata. This is the CO2 stream that reduces the total amount of Climate Changing CO2 in the air.

In the event there is not enough biomass to make sufficient electricity, fossil natural gas is used to make up the shortfall. Chemically, its CO2 is the same as air's CO2 so its CO2 can be added to the biomass' CO2 sequestration stream. This way, fossil natural gas emissions created during making electricity will never see the light of day.

By proportioning out the CO2 that is sequestered forever in the ground by making electricity and the portion of CO2 that is returned to the air via bio-fuels, we can, over time, remove and sequester just the amount of CO2 that shouldn't be in the air. That is the purpose of the facility depicted above.

If ALL the world's electricity power plants were Toshiba's upcoming 300 mW Allam plants powering biofuel liquid fuel factories as shown above, we would soon end Climate Change.

________________________________________________________________

Above and Below: A Carbon-captured Biomass Waste-to-Energy Clean Fuel Factory To Provide Both Big Electricity And Net-zero CO2 Fuels



Equipment Pages  
>  1 Introduction  2 Engineering  3 Allam CCS Power Plant  4 Hydrogen Generator 5 Biomass Preparation  6 Plasma Torch Gasifier  7 GTL Refinery  8 Fuels Description

Recycling air's CO2 carbon into cheap, clean fuels - using standard industrial equipment to assemble GTL fuel molecules [ GTL ] from gasified biomass waste to make CO2-neutral fuels.
The big win is that we change only the fuels, not everything in the world that uses fuels.  Much quicker and cheaper.  For the average person we can keep our current lifestyles, we won't have to buy range-limited electric cars, and we can keep air travel.
With a fuel supply system like the above, cars could easily be biogasoline, E80, M70, plug-in hybrids. One kilogram of hydrogen contains as much energy as about three liters of diesel.  

________________________________________________________________

About CO2 Sequestration and Net-zero CO2 Emissions Renewable Clean Fuel Factories

"The United States has the technological potential to offset roughly only a decade’s worth of its current CO2 emissions through biological sequestration (i.e., planting trees, etc.,) but a few hundred years’ worth of emissions through carbon dioxide capture and sequestration." - from Congressional Budget Office "The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States, 2007" - Summary, page 2.

Storing CO2 underground can have geological consequences and is only done legally under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies. 
Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership: 
https://www.mrcsp.org/ 

We still have several hundred years of fossil fuels remaining. A few hundred years should buy enough time to perfect nuclear energy.   

                               
Maps Showing various UNDERGROUND CARBON CAPTURE STORAGE STRATA LOCATIONS           Energy + Hydrogen + Biomass System - (pdf Slide Show) - Dr Charles W. Forsberg


The end-user would continue to use the same or similar fires and other "Drop-In" clean energies supplied through existing distribution networks.

The world may need about 10,000 Renewable Fuel Factories to head off the worst of Climate Change.  Like cars, airplanes, and ships, Fuel Factories would be modular in design similar to today's electricity power plants. Ten or even 20 fuel factory modules could be located at a single large fuel factory. Such modularity is an economic advantage in several ways. For example, you can run different products on different modules at the same time, varying the numbers of modules making the same product to satisfy current market needs. The cost, quality, and reliability of mass-produced modules of anything is hard to beat.  https://www.biomass.net/Biomass-and-Climate-Change.html 

There are almost unlimited opportunities for completely new greenfield Fuel Factories now that prime underground strata for CCS CO2 sequestration locations have been identified enabling cheap straight-down CO2 disposal via disposal wells located on site property. Since potable water is one of the Allam Cycle's exhaust products, fuel factories could be located virtually anywhere there is a CO2 disposal strata and sufficient biomass. This means there is no need for a costly national CO2 disposal grid that may take 20 to 40 years and billions of dollars to complete due to obstruction by environmentalists.
Storing CO2 underground improperly can be a hazardous activity and is only to be done under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies.

________________________________________________________________

This idea is disruptive in that it is much less disruptive than all the other disruptive ideas being put forth these days for reversing Climate Change.
This technology is for sale. See below.

Visit the other key technologies needed to enable production of OPEN-AIR-BURNABLE waste-to-energy renewable fuels.

1.    http://plascotechnologies.com/  is offering the technology for a small version of a renewable plasma gasified waste-to-fuel factory now.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YllIj_bzl5A 
2.   
Also, check out plasma gasifier manufacturer AlterNRG:  http://www.alternrg.com/
               http://www.alternrg.com/waste_to_energy/waste-to-liquids/ 
3.   
Shell Pearl: The world's largest fossil Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) refinery https://www.shell.com.qa/en_qa/projects-and-sites/pearl-gtl.html 

________________________________________________________________

About CARBON TAXES and CARBON CAPTURE INCENTIVES
Information about the government's different Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Acts
(Courtesy of Climate Change Working Group):

First, here's a link to the bill itself: https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/763 
Second, for anyone without the time or interest to read the entire bill, a link to a "road map" of the bill's contents, so the most relevant sections can be found with some ease:  
https://community.citizensclimatelobby.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Section-by-Section-Analysis-Energy-Innovation-Act-2019.pdf 
Third, here's a link to Citizen's Climate Lobby's website about the bill, which also allows a reader to see who has already endorsed the bill and what the press is saying about it. It includes an endorsement tool: 
https://energyinnovationact.org/ 
Finally, for anyone wanting to compare this bill to other carbon pricing bills, an assessment that compares this bill (sponsored by Rep. Ted Deutch of Florida and therefore called the Deutch bill in the analysis) to others:   https://energypolicy.columbia.edu/research/commentary/how-bipartisan-energy-innovation-and-carbon-dividend-act-compares-other-carbon-tax-proposals

All these carbon tax fees raise a very serious question:
Q. How much per ton of CO2 is going to be refunded by the government to the operators of the above fuel factories to establish and operate a carbon dioxide disposal well on their own property?

A. Deutch bill: This section amends the Tax Code (Title 26) by adding the following subsections: Subtitle L - "Carbon Dividends and Carbon Fee", Sec. 9906 - Carbon Capture and Sequestration:

"Provides a refund of Carbon Fee paid when qualified carbon dioxide is captured and sequestered in a safe and permanent manner. Requires establishment of sound criteria for safe and permanent sequestration. Only CO2 from covered fuels, and only rebate for amount likely to remain sequestered."

- - - In the United States there are now 2 big carbon capture incentives: A recently expanded federal tax credit for captured CO2 and California’s new law requiring 100% of its electricity come from carbon-free sources by 2045.

In the U.S., carbon capture has led to the formation of extraordinary alliances. In 2018, a tax credit known as 45Q—so named for the relevant provision in the law—was revised to provide higher incentives for CCS with support from congressional lawmakers of both parties, big oil and gas, industry, and environmentalists. Over time, it will ramp up to $50 per metric ton of carbon stored geologically and $35 per metric ton of carbon stored through enhanced oil recovery, provided projects commence construction by the end of 2023. - Brad Page, Bloomberg Environment, Posted May 13, 2019, 6:00 AM

The LCFS and CCS Protocol: An Overview for Policymakers and Project Developers - California - pdf.  If building the above Skyscrubber facility crossed your mind for even a millisecond, you need this document.

________________________________________________________________

References

                                

                             2016_billion_ton_report_12.2.16_0.pdf (400+ Pages)                                          Methanol - The Basic Chemical and Energy Feedstock of the Future.pdf
                                                                                                                    https://www.chemicals-technology.com/projects/george-olah-renewable-methanol-plant-iceland/                    

                               

The opportunities to reequip our liquid fuels industries with climate-neutral biomass waste-to-fuel energies.

________________________________________________________________

Our Climate Change Outlook

                   

So, by adding or removing air's CO2, we can set the world's thermostat wherever we like. . . . . .
The CO2 in the air acts like a blanket - the more CO2, the thicker the blanket. Taking CO2 out of the air is like taking a blanket off your bed - you feel the change quickly. More heat in the air makes summer storms more powerful.

________________________________________________________________

Thoughts of a Time-Traveler from the Age of Analog

"Technological fixes are often far simpler, and therefore cheaper, than the doomsayers could have imagined." -  ( From Prologue )

One objective of this website is to communicate that the Climate Change crisis resembles the horseshit crisis described in the Prologue's story. 

Here’s an analogy that Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, who helped compile some of the climate research data for the World Bank, likes to use.
"Take the human body. If your temperature rises 2°C, you have a significant fever. If it rises 4°C or 6°C you can die. It’s not a linear change."

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 

  Disclaimer: This website is energy talk by an engineer exploring Climate Change's opportunities for creating a clean combustion fuel future - not professional engineering advice.